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A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns, 1787-1825 (Philip J. Lampi and American Antiquarian Society; Tufts University Digital Collection and Archives)
A New Nation Votes provides data from America's earliest elections, between 1787 and 1825. The electoral data from the site covers offices from the United States president down to local offices such as alderman and county coroner. Fifteen thousand elections are available as of February 2008, about 27 percent of the eventual total that will cover all 25 states that existed during the time frame. The data is the result of decades of research using sources such as newspapers and county histories and primarily collected by researcher Philip J. Lampi. The site represents a collaboration between the American Antiquarian Society and Tufts University Digital Collection and Archives, with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities. A New Nation Votes is searchable by keyword, state, year, office, candidate, and party. Results are in HTML tables, with links to view PDFs of Lampi's original notebook pages. The entire dataset or data by state may also be downloaded for analysis.
African Elections Database (Albert C. Nunley)
The African Elections Database carries election results for sub-Saharan Africa, encompassing 48 countries plus Somaliland (not internationally recognized as a country). Information in the database was culled from a variety of online sources. The site contains one page for each country, with a political profile and then election results in HTML tables. The most recent elections added to the site appear to be from the year 2008.
African Elections Project (International Institute of ICT Journalism and Open Society Initiative for West Africa)
The African Elections Project aims to provide online information for elections in Africa, and also to provide training for African journalists in information communication technology (ICT) for election coverage. As of December 2010, the site lists Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, and Togo. The "results center" section of each country's site provides election results in HTML tables. In English and French.
American National Election Studies (ANES) (University of Michigan)
ANES conducts national surveys of the American electorate in presidential and midterm election years and carries out research and development work through pilot studies in odd-numbered years. The ANES time-series goes back to 1948. All ANES datasets are available for download at the website, free registration required.
Angus Reid Global Monitor (Angus Reid Strategies)
The Angus Reid Global Monitor site offers reports from over 20,000 market research and public opinion polls from around the world, including their own online polling in Canada and the U.S. Polling reports are divided into "Angus Reid Polls" going back to 2007, and Global Opinion Polls going back to 2003. Other site features include political analysis and an election tracker for recent and upcoming elections. The site is searchable and can also be browsed across a list of 27 global opinion issues. Poll results are presented in report format with HTML tables; full polling data is not available for download.
Canadian Election Study (CES) (Canadian Election Study (CES))
The Canadian Election Study (CES) surveys Canadian voters "to explain what makes people decide to vote (or not to vote), and, if they do, what makes them decide to support a given party or candidate, and why parties gain or lose ground from one election to another." The Canadian Opinion Research Archive (CORA) makes all the Canadian Election Studies available for online searching and data analysis through the CORA Nesstar server. In addition, CORA archives and provides access to the individual-level data files from every Canadian Election Study since 1965.
Cattaneo Web archive of Italian election results and surveys (Fondazione di ricerca "Istituto Carlo Cattaneo"
Istituto Carlo Cattaneo)
The Cattaneo Web Archive of Italian Election Results and Surveys offers information regarding Italian Elections dating back to 1990 and going onwards to 1996. The site also includes Bologna Elections results and surveys from 1984 and 1994, Italian Election Abstention Surveys from 1985, 1990 and 1995 and Italian Election Results by Commune from 1946-1996. Data is presented via the SDA interface. Abstracts are available in Italian and English.
CIRCLE, the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement, describes itself as"A non-partisan research center studying youth civic engagement and civic eduation." CIRCLE's research focuses on Americans between the ages of 15 and 25. The data section of their website carries several surveys for download or online analysis, including:
- The Civic and Political Health of the Nation survey (2002, 2004, & 2006)
- National Youth Survey, 2004
- YouthVote's June 2002 Survey of Young Americans (18-24)
The site also features factsheets, reports, and links to related sites.
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) (Comparative Study of Electoral Systems)
"The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) is a collaborative program of research among election study teams from around the world. Participating countries include a common module of survey questions in their post-election studies. The resulting data are deposited along with voting, demographic, district and macro variables. The studies are then merged into a single, free, public dataset for use in comparative study and cross-level analysis."
Three modules are available for download: 1996-2001, 2001-2006, and 2006-2011. Free registration required.
Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA) (Ken Kollman, University of Michigan)
Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA) is a repository of election results from lower-house legislative elections in 49 countries: Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Luxembourg, Malawi, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Zambia. Researchers at the University of Michigan, the College of William and Mary, and the University of St. Gallen (Switzerland) gathered the data from a variety of sources, focusing on votes received by each candidate or party, total votes cast, and number of eligible voters. The February 10, 2010 data release covers 785 elections from 1788 to 2007.
The data file download comes in SPSS portable, Stata and raw ASCII formats. The site also carries a subsetting tool that allows users to specify a time period and a region or country for data download.
Dave Leip's U.S. Election Atlas (Dave Leip)
The U.S. Election Atlas provides some election data free and some for a fee. The free offerings include an electoral vote calculator, as well as presidential election results nationally and by state through the course of US history, and by county for some years. However, the data is not in an easily-manipulable form and breaks out only the major candidates, particularly at the state level, making it more useful for look-ups than for analysis. Excel-format data files are available for purchase.
Note: the U.S. Election Atlas goes against the prevailing "red state, blue state" convention, coloring its maps blue for Republicans and red for Democrats.
Election Data Services (Election Data Services)
This company specializes in election and reapportionment issues, selling data files and maps and posters in addition to related services. Election data files are by county for national races (President, Senate, House, governor) back to 1988; the site also offers a ZIP+DISTRICT file that links five- and nine-digit ZIP codes to Congressional districts, and GIS district boundary files. All products are fee-based.
Electoral Vote Predictor (Andrew Tanenbaum)
The Electoral Vote Predictor site has been compiling state-by-state U.S. pre-election polls from multiple sources since the November 2004 election, and parlaying the results into vote predictions for the Electoral College. All of the polling results are available as .xls and .csv files. Other interesting features include a comparison of results by pollster, and an animated map depicting the poll result predictions through time. The poll-related content of the site is non-partisan, but the links to political humor and political sites do reflect partisan (Democrat/libertarian) leanings.
European Election Database (Norwegian Social Science Data Services (NSD))
The European Election Database exists to allow researchers to compare election results across countries and over time. The database covers 31 countries from 1990 forward. According to the site, "Data sets can be accessed, analyzed, and visualized with maps, graphs and tables through the Nesstar system. In addition to direct on-line access, data can be downloaded and/or exported to spreadsheet format."
Explaining the Turnout Decline in Canadian Federal Elections: A New Survey of Non-voters (Elections Canada / Decima Research and Jon H. Pammett, Carleton University; Lawrence LeDuc, University of Toronto)
This March 2003 report examines potential reasons for turnout decline in Canadian Federal Elections through a phone survey with 960 reported voters and 960 reported non-voters in April 2002 (5,637 respondents completed short screening interviews to produce the sample for the longer questionnaire). The website contains the data in Excel, SPSS POR and SPSS SAV formats; the questionnaire and methodology in PDF; and the final report in PDF.
Federal Election Commission (Federal Election Commission)
The FEC came onto the web scene in mid-February, 1996, and has been serving downloadable campaign finance data ever since. Both summary and detailed data are available for 1993-94 onward, by candidate, by PAC, or by Party Committee. Files are fixed-length and zipped, with "format" information accompanying each file. The anonymous FTP site is ftp://ftp.fec.gov .
Federal Elections Project (David Lublin (American University) and D. Steven Voss (University of Kentucky))
The Federal Elections Project sets out to match the precinct-level results of the U.S. federal election in 2000 with demographic data (primarily figures on voting age residents and ethnic/race categories) from the 2000 U.S. Census, generally at the town or county level. Although the focus is on federal offices, the data includes results from the eleven states holding gubernatorial elections in 2000. Most state files contain a MS Excel comma-delimited file along with a readme file that details the contents of the data file.
Five Thirty Eight (Nate Silver and New York Times)
Five Thirty Eight, hosted at the New York Times, specializes in electoral projections and takes its name from the total number of US electors. Silver's politics lean to the left, and his methodology leans to the complex; the site not only differentiates itself from other poll compilations by weighting polls for sample size, recentness, and pollster reliability, but also as the site claims, "we simulate the election 10,000 times for each site update in order to provide a probabilistic assessment of electoral outcomes based on a historical analysis of polling data since 1952."
HuffPost Pollster (Huffington Post and Mark Blumenthal)
Since 2004, Democratic pollster Mark Blumenthal (aka Mystery Pollster) has been blogging about, as he put it, "demystifying the science and art of political polling." His Pollster.com website has moved to the left-wing Huffington Post site, still posting poll results and analysis under the new title HuffPost Pollster.
Lijphart Elections Archive (University of California, San Diego)
The Lijphart Elections Archive, housed at the University of California, San Diego campus, is a static research collection of district level election results for approximately 350 national legislative elections in 26 countries up through 2003. The objective of the Archive is to systematically collect election statistics in as much detail as possible, including, as a minimum, the results at the level of the individual election districts in which votes are converted into seats. The Archive originally acquired print copies of the data and later moved into online data. The catalog of holdings details archive holdings of both print and online data as well as access to data when it can be freely disseminated. In addition the catalog links to other sources of online election data and information that can be found on the internet.
Mannheim Center for European Social Research (MZES) (Mannheim Center for European Social Research, Germany)
Founded as an institute of the University of Mannheim in 1989, the Center's research focuses on "cultural, societal and socio-economic bases of the living conditions of the inhabitants of European countries." In German and English.
National Annenberg Election Survey (NAES) (Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania)
In the 2000 and 2004 U.S. presidential election, the National Annenberg Election Survey has carried out a major cross-sectional survey conducted as daily telephone interviews with samples of 50 to 300 people per day, for a total of more than 100,000 interviews with some respondents interviewed multiple times. In each cycle the interviews started over a year before the general election, thereby covering the primary elections as well, and in 2000 the interviews continued several months past Election Day in order to continue to track issues since the outcome of the presidential election remained so long in doubt. Interview questions focused on perceptions and behaviors relevant to the campaigns as well as the political system generally. Data collection for 2008 will begin in the second half of 2007. The 2000 NAES data is available at DISC, along with the accompanying book Capturing Campaign Dynamics: The National Annenberg Election Survey from Oxford University Press.
November 2004 Exit Polls at MSNBC (MSNBC)
The MSNBC web site provides HTML tables of exit polling from November 2, 2004. Presidential exit poll results are available nationally and by state, with statewide results for Senate and Governor's races as well. Exit polling was conducted at the behest of a news media alliance called the National Election Pool, that hired Edison Media Research and Mitofsky International (http://www.edisonresearch.com/politics_campaign.html) to carry out the polling.
Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research (Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research)
"The Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research (PSR) is an independent nonprofit institution and think tank of policy analysis and academic research. PSR was founded with the goal of advancing scholarship and knowledge on immediate issues of concern to Palestinians in three areas: domestic politics and government, strategic analysis and foreign policy, and public opinion polls and survey research." Users can look at polls dating back to 1993 regarding Palestinian attitudes towards the conflict with Israel. Polls are available in HTML format.
POLIDATA (Clark Bensen)
This site sells demographic and election data, including vote history by county back to 1920 for presidential elections and back to the 1980s for statewide elections. Data is also available for other geographic aggregations such as OMB Metropolitan Statistical Areas and A.C. Nielsen Designated Market Areas. Other Polidata offerings include election-related maps and litigation support. Most products are fee-based; however, at http://www.polidata.us/books/ you can click on links to each state and then scroll down to the bottom of the state page for PDF documents comprising: maps, presidential and congressional results by district from 1992, presidential results by county from 1980, and some statewide election history.
Political Moneyline (CQ Roll Call)
Political Moneyline packages campaign contribution data from the Federal Election Commission (FEC) on this site, for the election cycles from 1980 through the current cycle. Free information includes news briefs, federal candidate profiles, a donor lookup, PAC/party profiles, and more. Subscription information includes a soft money database, lobbying expenditures, and PAC contributions broken out by Committees of Congress.
Polling The Nations: The Ultimate Survey Database (UW-Madison Subscription) (ORS Publishing)
"Polling The Nations: The Ultimate Survey Database" offers users the chance to sort through various polls using strict search criteria. Users may search by topic, question asked in the poll, "universe" (i.e., geographic locality indicated on the poll), date, source, and "results" (i.e., categories such as women, Blacks, Hispanics, etc.) An extensive list of topics is provided for using controlled vocabulary within the searches. Note: UW-Madison subscribes to this resource via IP authentication. Non-UW-Madison users may visit the Polling the Nations site at http://poll.orspub.com/.
Psephos - Adam Carr's Election Archive (Adam Carr)
The Psephos site is dedicated to the posting of election results worldwide (174 countries as of 2006). Results are culled from sources such newspaper reports or government web sites, and reformatted as text documents. Coverage varies by country, but the Australian section is particularly strong, going back to 1901, and current coverage of small countries is impressive as well, with frequent updates across the site.
RealClearPolitics (polling section) (RealClearPolitics)
RealClearPolitics is a right-leaning political analysis site founded in 2000 by John McIntyre and Tom Bevan. The polling section of the site includes links to national and state polls, polling averages, and electoral college maps, including maps from elections back to 1968. The site also featured a fantasy marketplace game based on the Intrade online futures trading market, at http://fantasy08.realclearpolitics.com/, where participants could bet pretend-money on their political picks.
Record of American Democracy, 1984-1990 (Gary King and Bradley Palmquist)
"The Record Of American Democracy (ROAD) data includes election returns, socioeconomic summaries, and demographic measures of the American public at unusually low levels of geographic aggregation. The NSF-supported ROAD project covers every state in the country from 1984 through 1990 (including some off-year elections). One collection of data sets includes every election at and above State House, along with party registration and other variables, in each state for the roughly 170,000 precincts nationwide (about 60 times the number of counties). Another collection has added to these (roughly 30-40) political variables an additional 3,725 variables merged from the 1990 U.S. Census for 47,327 aggregate units (about 15 times the number of counties) about the size one or more cities or towns. These units completely tile the U.S. landmass. The collection also includes geographic boundary files so users can easily draw maps with these data."
Resource Center for Minority Data (RCMD) (Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR))
The Resource Center for Minority Data (RCMD) is one of a growing number of special-purpose subsets within the vast data collections of the ICPSR. The focus of the RCMD is data for comparative analysis of issues affecting racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. The subject coverage of the selected studies runs the gamut from education to housing to poverty to political participation. RCMD data falls into two general categories: studies that focus specifically on minority populations, such as the National Black Election Studies series; and studies with large enough sample sizes or ethnic/racial oversampling to permit meaningful analysis of issues that affect race and ethnic minority populations, such as the American Housing Survey series. While documentation is freely browsable, data download is available only to ICPSR member institutions, including UW-Madison.
The Hotline from National Journal (UW-Madison Subscription) (National Journal)
The Hotline is the National Journal's "daily briefing on politics." Up-to-date material is provided on a number of pressing issues. The site is a virtual newspaper with a number of columns, almanacs, and reports on various election races throughout the country. Users may also view other parts of the site, including "Almanac of American Politics," "Technology Daily," "Congress Daily," and "Race Dashboard" (formerly known as "Poll Track"). Note: UW-Madison subscribes via IP authentication.
The Wisconsin Campaign Finance Project (Ken Mayer, University of Wisconsin-Madison)
The Wisconsin Campaign Finance Project aims to shed light on public election funding programs in the United States. State legislative races and the New York City Council are the primary focus, with campaign spending and election data posted for Arizona, Hawaii, Maine, Minnesota (partial), Nebraska, New York City (partial), and Wisconsin. Click on the Data link to get to a highlighted map, which leads to data files in Excel.
U.S. Election Counts Since 1920 (Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)
This site provides official state-by-state vote counts in federal elections from 1920 through 2004. All years are available as PDF documents, while 1992 onward are available in HTML tables as well.
United Kingdom Election Results (1983-2005) (David Boothroyd)
David Boothroyd created this site of British Parliamentary Election results, going back in some cases as far as 1983, with an emphasis on including the entire range of parties.
University Information System - Russia (UIS RUSSIA) (Russian Inter-University Social Sciences Information and Analytical Consortium)
This online collection, primarily in Russian, contains a wealth of information about Russia since the early 1990s. Sources include governmental laws and directives, daily records of the State Duma, Russian Federation data (Goscomstat), CIS economic and social data, election statistics, and much more. The collection is intended for social science education and research, and is geared toward university users. Certain areas of the collection, and a collection-wide search, are free to any user; other parts of the site are password-protected, including the Russian Federation state statistics. Please visit DISC in person to be logged in with username and password.
Voter Turnout from 1945 to Date (International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA))
This site presents voter turnout figures in HTML tables for 171 independent states, covering national presidential and parliamentary elections since 1945. Year, total vote, registration, turnout percentages, and population size are included for each election. The site also provides an overview report called "Voter Turnout: A Global Survey."
Voting America: United States Politics, 1840-2008 (Digital Scholarship Lab, University of Richmond)
The Voting America site presents animated maps of presidential election data at the county level across time (actual returns, margin of victory, party strength, population, voter turnout).
The centerpiece of the animated "cinematic maps" is a timeline tour through presidential election data from 1840 onward. Cinematic maps for individual elections show a series of thematic maps, from state results to county results to numbers of votes to margins of victory. Another series of cinematic maps shows population growth over time for white and African American residents. Users can also choose "interactive maps" and pick their own years and indicators to display. An additional section of the site provides analysis and commentary in video form.
Voting and Registration Data (U.S.) (U.S. Bureau of the Census)
The Current Population Survey (CPS) collects information on reported voting and registration by various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in November of each congressional and presidential election year. Historical time-series tables back to 1964 are available, as well as detailed reports and tables since 1994.
Wisconsin Campaign Finance Project (Ken Mayer, University of Wisconsin - Madison)
The Wisconsin Campaign Finance Project was founded "to provide researchers with authoritative data on public election funding programs throughout the U.S. We focus on state legislative races and the New York City Council." The project has posted campaign finance data for six states: Arizona, Hawaii, Maine, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Wisconsin, plus New York City. Data coverage varies between states, but generally covers from about 1990 to 2004 or 2006.
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