CSSRR-Social is a weekly email report produced by the Data and Information Services Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. It seeks to help social science researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. This report will contain selected listings of new: reports, articles, bibliographies, working papers, tables of contents, conferences, data, and websites. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:
CSSRR-Social is compiled and edited by Jack Solock and Charlie Fiss.
To CSSRR-Econ #29
To CSSRR- Health #29
Index to this issue:
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND NGO STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS
NGO AND OTHER COUNTRIES
OTHER REPORTS, ARTICLES, ETC.
TABLES OF CONTENTS
WEBSITES OF INTEREST
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT STATISTICAL AND NGO PUBLICATIONS
1. Census Bureau Facts for Features: "Halloween, Oct. 31, 2007" (CB07-FF.15, Aug. 30, 2007, HTML and .pdf format, 3p.).
See Aug. 30, 2007 entry.
2. Department of Health and Social Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation Report: "Economic Patterns of Single Mothers Following Their Poverty Exits," by Quinn Moore, Anu Rangarajan, and Peter Schochet (June 2007, .pdf format, 64p.).
3. Department of Homeland Security Report: "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population: 2006," by Michael Hoefer, Nancy Rytina, And Christopher Campbell (August 2007, .pdf format, 6p.).
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Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism Report: "Highlights for the 2006 Hawaii ACS - Income and Poverty Data (DBEDT Analysis)" (August 2007, .pdf and/or Microsoft Excel format).
State Data Center Updates: The SDC released the following updates (.pdf and Microsoft Excel format) on Aug. 30, 2007): For the state: Health Insurance, Income, and Poverty Estimates from various Current Population Surveys' Annual Social and Economic Supplements.
See under Aug. 30, 2007 listing.
Michigan.gov History, Arts, and Libraries Census Statistics and Demographic Data Reports:
A. "Trends in Household Income, 2000-2006" (August 2007, Microsoft Excel or .pdf format).
B. "Employment and Earnings by Age, Education, and Category of Private or Public Employer: 2000-05" (August 2007, Microsoft Excel or .pdf format).
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NGO and Other Countries:
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) Report: "Report on Racism and Xenophobia in the Member States of the EU" (August 2007, .pdf format, 163p.).
Bureau of Statistics Report: "Divorces Australia 2006" (August 2007, Microsoft Excel format).
Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada Periodical: Science Statistics (Vol. 31, No. 4, August 2007, HTML and .pdf format, 15p.). The focus of this issue is: "Spending on research and development in the higher education sector."
Statistics Faroe Islands Compendium: _Faroe Islands in Figures: 2007_ (2007, .pdf format, 17p.).
Statistics Finland News Release: "Completers of curriculum-based basic vocational education numbered 31,100 in 2006" (Aug. 29, 2007).
Central Statistical Office Compendium: Hungary, 2006 (August 2007, .pdf format, 101p.).
Statistics Latvia News Release: "Changes of demographic situation in Latvia in the 1st half-year of 2007" (Aug. 27, 2007).
Statistics New Zealand/Tatauranga Aotearoa Reports, Media Release:
A. "Pacific Profiles: 2006" (August 2007, .pdf format). "Pacific Profiles: 2006 is a series of seven reports, based on results of the 2006 census. Each profile provides detailed information for the seven largest Pacific ethnic groups in New Zealand: Samoans, who make up the largest proportion (49 percent); Cook Island Maori (22 percent); Tongans (19 percent); Niueans (8 percent); Fijians (4 percent); Tokelauans (3 percent); and Tuvaluans (1 percent). The profiles include information on demographics, language, religion, families and households, education, the labour force, income, housing, access to amenities such as the Internet, smoking behaviour and number of children born to women. The profiles highlight trends within each Pacific ethnic group. They analyse each Pacific group's New Zealand-born and overseas-born populations and make comparisons with previous census data. They also highlight differences and similarities by comparing each Pacific ethnic group with the total Pacific and total New Zealand populations."
B. "Population Estimates at 30 June 2006" (August 2007).
C. "Father figures" (Aug. 31, 2007, HTML and .pdf format, 1p.).
Scottish Executive Report: "Prison Statistics Scotland, 2006/07" (August 2007, .pdf format, 63p.).
Statistical Office News Release: "Migration changes, Slovenia, 2006" (Aug. 31, 2007).
National Statistics Office Periodical, Report:
A. Monthly Digest of Statistics, edited by Dilys Rosen (August 2007, .pdf format, 135p.).
B. "Divorces in 2006, selected data tables, England and Wales" (August 2007, Microsoft Excel format, with a news release in .pdf format, 4p.).
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OTHER REPORTS, ARTICLES, ETC.
Urban Institute Report: "After Katrina: Washed Away? Justice in New Orleans," by Caterina Gouvis Roman, Seri Irazola, and Jenny Osborne (Research Report, August 2007, .pdf format, 15p.).
American Enterprise Institute Monograph: No Remedy Left Behind: Lessons from a Half-Decade of NCLB (No Child Left Behind)," edited by Frederick M. Hess and Chester E. Finn Jr. (2007, 334p., ISBN: 0-8447-4255-4). For more information see:
Center for Housing Policy Report: "The Housing Landscape for America's Working Families, 2007," by Maya Brennan and Barbara J. Lipman (24p.).
More information on CHP:
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National Bureau of Economic Research:
A. "The Causal Effect of Studying on Academic Performance," by Todd R. Stinebrickner and Ralph Stinebrickner (w13341, August 2007, .pdf format, 42p.).
Despite the large amount of attention that has been paid recently to understanding the determinants of educational outcomes, knowledge of the causal effect of the most fundamental input in the education production function - students' study time and effort - has remained virtually non-existent. In this paper, we examine the causal effect of studying on grade performance using an Instrumental Variable estimator. Our approach takes advantage of a unique natural experiment and is possible because we have collected unique longitudinal data that provides detailed information about all aspects of this experiment. Important for understanding the potential impact of a wide array of education policies, the results suggest that human capital accumulation is far from predetermined at the time of college entrance.
B. "Evidence about the Potential Role for Affirmative Action in Higher Education," by Braz Camargo, Todd Stinebrickner, and Ralph Stinebrickner (w13342, August 2007, .pdf format, 34p.).
In two recent cases involving the University of Michigan (Gratz v. Bollinger and Gruttinger v. Bollinger), the Supreme Court examined whether race should be allowed to play an explicit role in the admission decisions of schools. The arguments made in support of affirmative action admission policies in these cases and others raise two fundamental questions. First, do students actually have incorrect beliefs about individuals from different races at the time of college entrance? Second, if students do have incorrect beliefs at the time of college entrance, can diversity on a college campus change these beliefs? While a small literature has recently shed some light on the second question, no previous work has been able to provide direct evidence about the first one. In this paper we examine the first question by taking advantage of unique data collected specifically for this purpose.
C. "The Wrong Side(s) of the Tracks Estimating the Causal Effects of Racial Segregation on City Outcomes," by Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat (w13343, August 2007, .pdf format, 66p.).
At the metropolitan level there is a striking negative correlation between residential racial segregation and population characteristics -- particularly for black residents -- but it is widely recognized that this correlation may not be causal. This paper provides a novel test of the causal relationship between segregation and population outcomes by exploiting the arrangements of railroad tracks in the 19th century to isolate plausibly exogenous variation in cities' susceptibility to segregation. I show that, conditional on miles of railroad track laid, the extent to which track configurations physically subdivided cities strongly predicts the level of segregation that ensued after the Great Migration of African-Americans to northern and western cities in the 20th century. At the start of the Great Migration, though, track configurations were uncorrelated with racial concentration, ethnic dispersion, income, industry, education, and population, indicating that reverse causality is unlikely. Instrumental variables estimates demonstrate that segregation leads to lower incomes and lower education among blacks. For whites, there is a mix of positive and negative effects: segregation decreases the probability of being a college graduate or a high earner, but also decreases the probability of being poor or unemployed. Segregation could generate these effects either by affecting human capital acquisition of residents of different races and socio-economic groups ('production') or by inducing sorting by race and SES into different cities ('selection'). This paper provides evidence that is most consistent with a combination of both production and selection.
D. "Do Teacher Absences Impact Student Achievement? Longitudinal Evidence from One Urban School District," by Raegen T. Miller, Richard J. Murnane, and John B. Willett (w13356, August 2007, .pdf format, 44p.).
Rates of employee absences and the effects of absences on productivity are topics of conversation in many organizations in many countries. One reason is that high rates of employee absence may signal weak management and poor labor-management relations. A second reason is that reducing rates of employee absence may be an effective way to improve productivity. This paper reports the results of a study of employee absences in education, a large, labor-intensive industry. Policymakers' concern with teacher absence rests on three premises: (1) that a significant portion of teachers' absences is discretionary, (2) that teachers' absences have a nontrivial impact on productivity, and (3) that feasible policy changes could reduce rates of absence among teachers. This paper presents the results of an empirical investigation of the first two of these premises; it discusses the third premise. We employ a methodology that accounts for time-invariant differences among teachers in skill and motivation. We find large variation in adjusted teacher absence rates among schools. We estimate that each 10 days of teacher absences reduce students' mathematics achievement by 3.3 percent of a standard deviation.
E. "Uncovering the American Dream: Inequality and Mobility in Social Security Earnings Data since 1937," by Wojciech Kopczuk, Emmanuel Saez, and Jae Song (w13343, August 2007, .pdf format, 84p.).
This paper uses Social Security Administration longitudinal earnings micro data since 1937 to analyze the evolution of inequality and mobility in the United States. Earnings inequality follows a U-shape pattern, decreasing sharply up to 1953 and increasing steadily afterwards. We find that short-term and long-term (rank based) mobility among all workers has been quite stable since 1950 (after a temporary surge during World War II). Therefore, the pattern of annual earnings inequality is very close to the pattern of inequality of longer term earnings. Mobility at the top has also been very stable and has not mitigated the dramatic increase in annual earnings concentration since the 1970s. However, the stability in long-term earnings mobility among all workers masks substantial heterogeneity across demographic groups. The decrease in the gender earnings gap and the substantial increase in upward mobility over a career for women is the driving force behind the relative stability of overall mobility measures which mask declines in mobility among men. In contrast, overall inequality and mobility patterns are not significantly influenced by the changing size and structure of immigration nor by changes in the black/white earnings gaps.
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research:
A. "Fertility postponement and age norms in Poland: is there a deadline for parenthood?" by Monika A. Mynarska (WP-2007-029, August 2007, .pdf format, 35p.).
The postponement of childbearing is occurring across Europe, but the paths of this trend differ profoundly from country to country. In Poland, as in other Central and Eastern European countries, most women have their first child at a relatively young age. This paper asks about the role of age norms in sustaining the pattern of early motherhood. We investigate young adults’ perceptions of age in relation to their fertility choices. We find that age is indeed a salient dimension that structures and regulates individual childbearing plans. The qualitative approach of our study allows for gaining insights into how age norms are explained, argued about and sanctioned. Finally, we reconstruct the mechanisms of the normative influence of age limits (deadlines) on fertility behavior, improving our understanding of the timing of childbearing.
B. "The influence of parents on cohabitation in Italy - insights from two regional contexts," by Christin Schroder (WP-2007-030, August 2007, .pdf format, 52p.).
In view of the demographic changes that affect all European countries, the diffusion of new living arrangements such as non-marital cohabitation is particularly interesting. In this article we concentrate on Italy, a country that is characterized by a low pace in the diffusion of cohabitation. Earlier studies found statistical evidence of the impact of parents’ characteristics on young adults’ decisions for cohabitation. However, there is only limited empirical knowledge about the actual mechanism through which parents influence the choices of their children. We employ qualitative research methods and focus on two regional contexts in order to analyze if and how parents intervene in the choices young adults.
C. "An introduction to anthropological demography," by Laura Bernardi (WP-2007-031, August 2007, .pdf format, 19p.).
Anthropological demography is a specialty within demography which uses anthropological theory and methods to provide a better understanding of demographic phenomena in current and past populations. Its genesis and ongoing growth lie at the intersection between demography and socio-cultural anthropology and with their efforts to understand population processes, mainly fertility, migration, and mortality. Both disciplines share a common research object, namely human populations, and they focus on mutually complementary aspects of this research object: demography is statistically oriented and is mainly concerned with the dynamic forces defining population size and structure and their variation across time and space, whereas socio-cultural anthropology is interpretative and focuses on the social organization shaping the production and reproduction of human populations. The main theoretical concepts in anthropological demography are culture, gender, and political economy; its empirical research approach includes a mix of quantitative and qualitative methodologies applied to case studies. Ethnographic fieldwork and participant observation are often central to this approach as is an interpretative reading of secondary data and historical material.
Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) [University of Bonn, Germany]:
A. "Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men," by Sandra E. Black, Paul Devereux, and Kjell G. Salvanes (Discussion Paper 3011, August 2007, .pdf format, 37p.).
How do families influence the ability of children? Cognitive skills have been shown to be a strong predictor of educational attainment and future labor market success; as a result, understanding the determinants of cognitive skills can lead to a better understanding of children’s long run outcomes. This paper uses a large dataset on the male population of Norway and focuses on one family characteristic: the effect of family size on IQ. Because of the endogeneity of family size, we instrument for family size using twin births and sex composition. IV estimates using sex composition as an instrument show no negative effect of family size; however, IV estimates using twins imply that family size has a negative effect on IQ. Our results suggest that effect of family size depends on the type of family size intervention. We conclude that there are no important negative effects of expected increases in family size on IQ but that unexpected shocks to family size resulting from twin births have negative effects on the IQ of existing children.
B. "The Changing Face of Chinese Immigrants in Canada," by Shibao Guo and Don J. DeVoretz (Discussion Paper 3018, August 2007, .pdf format, 26p.).
This paper analyzes the changing characteristics of Chinese immigrants to Canada between 1980 and 2001. It reveals that recent Chinese immigrants to Canada constitute a substantially different group from those of former years. They are no longer a homogeneous group from the rural areas of Guangdong Province of Mainland China, but in fact citizens of 132 countries, speaking 100 different languages and dialects. This study also reveals significant differences among Chinese subgroups. Immigrants from Hong Kong and Taiwan shared more commonalities than with those from Mainland China. Given Canada’s time dependent immigration selection procedures, these differences are rationalized on the basis of a proposed single and double selection theory.
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JOURNAL TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Annals of Statistics (Vol. 35, No. 4, August 2007).
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Vienna [Austria] Institute of Demography Call for Papers: "Can policies enhance fertility in Europe?" a conference to be held in Vienna, Austria, Dec. 6-7, 2007). For more information see:
A. "GSDI-10: Tenth International Conference for Spatial Data Infrastructure." to be held in St. Augustine, Trinidad, Feb. 25-29, 2008). For more information see:
B. International Sociological Association: "First ISA Forum of Sociology: Sociological Research and Public Debate," to be held Sep. 5-8, 2008 in Barcelona, Spain). For more information see:
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UK Data Archive: "Senior Data & Support Services Officer" (closing date is Sep. 28, 2007). For more information see:
American Statistical Association: ASA has updated its employment page with listings from Aug. 29- Sep. 4, 2007).
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US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service: "Rural Definitions" (September 2007, Microsoft Excel and .pdf format). "The classification of people and territory as rural poses a number of challenges for researchers, policy makers, and program managers throughout the Federal system and beyond. Most Americans share a common image of rural--open countryside and small towns at some distance from large urban centers--but disagree on where and how to draw the line between rural and urban. Drawing such a line requires answering two questions:
At what population threshold do rural places become urban? Where along the urban periphery do suburbs give way to rural territory? Answers to these questions vary substantially among the profusion of rural definitions currently in use. Population thresholds dividing rural from urban locations range from 2,500 to 50,000. Methods of designating the urban periphery range from the use of municipal boundaries to definitions based on counties. Definitions based on municipal boundaries may classify as rural much of what would typically be considered suburban. Definitions that delineate the urban periphery based on counties may include extensive segments of a county that many would consider rural.
We have selected a representative set of nine alternative rural definitions and compare social and economic indicators from the 2000 decennial census across the nine definitions. We chose socioeconomic indicators (population, education, poverty, etc.) that are commonly used to highlight differences between urban and rural areas.
UK Data Archive (Essex University, Colchester, UK): The UK Data Archive has recently added the following datasets to its holdings. Note: There maybe charges or licensing requirements on holdings of the UK Data Archive. For more information see:
SN 5671 -Inclusion without Membership: Bringing Russia, Ukraine and Belarus Closer to Europe: Mass Surveys, 2004-2005
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WEBSITES OF INTEREST:
US National Center for Education Statistics: "National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP Questions" (August 2007). "After each assessment, NAEP releases dozens of sample questions to the public--more than 2,000 questions are currently available. The tools featured here can be used to supplement classroom instruction, provide additional insight into the content of the assessment, and show what students nationally or in your state or district know and can do. Explore the tools and find out more about NAEP."
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Panel Study Of Income Dynamics Bibliography Update: The University of Michigan Institute for Social Research PSID has recently added the following item to its bibliography. The entire bibliography can be searched or browsed in various ways at:
Compton, Janice and Pollak, Robert A. Why Are Power Couples Increasingly Concentrated in Large Metropolitan Areas?. Journal of Labor Economics. 2007; 25(3):19 pgs.
Kapteyn, Arie and Ypma, Jelmer Y. Measurement Error and Misclassification: A Comparison of Survey and Administrative Data. Journal of Labor Economics. 2007; 25(3):25 pgs.
Shauman, Kimberlee A. and Noonan, Mary C. Family Migration and Labor Force Outcomes: Sex Differences in Occupational Context. Social Forces. 2007; 85(4):1735-1765.
Timberlake, Jeffrey M. Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the Duration of Children's Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and Affluence. Social Problems. 2007; 54(3):319-342.
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