Online Data Archive

Government Crowd-Out of Private Contributions to Public Radio: An Empirical Study, 1990-1996

Principal Investigator:
John Straub

The data were collected for a study of fundraising and crowd-out at noncommercial radio stations. The term crowd-out refers to the theoretically plausible reduction in private contributions when government funding is increased. The data come from publicly available IRS Form 990 tax returns, filed annually by all tax-exempt organizations. The dataset is a short unbalanced panel with a total of 419 observations on 104 different noncommercial radio stations. There are 29 variables in the dataset, most of which correspond to information reported on lines 1a through 21 of the Form 990. Additional information includes the name of the station's license holder, the location of the station, the number of potential listeners, and an indicator of National Public Radio affiliation.

View a research paper for this dataset:
Fundraising and Government Crowd-Out of Private Contributions to Public Radio:  An Empirical Study (.pdf, 427K)

More recent copies of the IRS Form 990 for nonprofit organizations can be seen at the GuideStar website,



Old-fashioned radio photo