Key to Variables

Government Crowd-Out of Private Contributions to Public Radio: An Empirical Study, 1990-1996

Variable Description
1 Licensee Organization that holds the station's license
2 City City in which station is located
3 State state in which station is located
4 Call Sign Call sign of the station
5 PopCount Population Count Estimated number of potential listeners
6 CovArea Coverage Area: Estimated coverage area in square kilometers
7 NPR Binary indicator: equals 1 if station is affiliated with National Public Radio
8 TV Binary indicator: equals 1 if tax return covers a radio AND television station
9 Multi Binary indicator: equals 1 if tax return covers a multi-purpose organization
10 ID ID number of the station
11 Year Year of the return
12 line1a Direct public support
13 line1b Indirect public support
14 line1c Government contributions (grants)
15 line2 Program service revenue
16 line3 Membership dues and assessments
17 line4 Interest on saving and temporary cash investments
18 line5 Dividends and interest from securities
19 line6c Gross rents
20 line7 Other investment income
21 line8d Net gain or loss from sale of assets other than inventory
22 line9c Net income or loss from special events
23 line10c Gross profit or loss from sales of inventory
24 line11 Other revenue
25 line13 Program service expenses
26 line14 Management and general expenses
27 line15 Fundraising expenses
28 line16 Payments to affiliates
29 line21 Net assets or fund balances at end of year


Data Sources and Notes:
All variables were keyed directly from copies of Section I of the IRS Form990, unless otherwise noted.

Variables 5 and 6:   
Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB)'s Listener Access 2000 report in the area of the "Comparison of Calculated Station Grants by States" [Note: no longer online]

Variable  7:               
National Public Radio, 

Variables 8 and 9:   
Information provided by these variables is based on IRS Form 990 (.pdf, 682 Kb), Part III, "Statement of Program Service Accomplishments" and by verification of CPB grants to public television through reference to CPB Annual Reports, [Note: no longer online]

Variable  10
[Arbitrary station identification number] whose value was determined through enumeration of an alphabetized list of the station call signs for each of the 104 radio stations represented.       

Note:  Section VII of Form 990 (Analysis of Income Producing Activities) provides some detail on the sources of revenue reported in Part I.  From Part VII it is clear that most stations report grants from the CPB on line 1c -- Government contributions (grants).  A handful of stations, however, reported their CPB grants on line 1b -- Indirect public support.  [This decision of these radio stations could be due to the fact that the CPB, while created and funded by Congress, is not technically a government organization, but rather an independent corporation].   To insure a consistent definition of government contributions across stations, information in Section VII was used to reallocate the value of CPB grants from line 1b to line 1c for stations with the following ID numbers: 10,20,22,33, and 46.