Catalog of Holdings

Study Report

Study Number: FE-502-001-2-1-International-ICPSR-1816

Subject Area: Conflict, Violence and Wars

Bibliographic Citation: Wages of war, 1816-1965.  [machine-readable data file] / Singer, J. David  [principal investigator(s)] / Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research  [distributor].

Originating Archive Number: 9044

Comments: These data are available from ICPSR in an updated edition (1816-1980).

Access Status: Access limited to UW-Madison campus

Documentation: Hard copy, 2 volumes.

Abstract: This data collection consists of three separate datasets. Data were collected to study the trends and changes in the frequency, magnitude, severity, and intensity of international wars, civil wars, and international disputes. For each dataset, the unit of analysis is the participant in a particular conflict. While the three datasets are related, they are mutually exclusive in that each describes a particular type of war (interstate or civil) or a dispute. The first collection describes the experience of each interstate system member in each war. The file contains 302 records, each containing 42 variables that describe those experiences. In order to be considered a nation participant, certain minimal criteria of population and diplomatic recognition were used. Qualifying nation participants are classified as to whether or not they were members of the European central system at the time of the war and, therefore, active and influential in European centered diplomacy. The geographical location of the war is coded as well as the severity of the war as determined by its duration and the number of battle-connected deaths. The pre-war population of each nation participant is also coded. The second dataset is a study of 106 major civil wars involving 139 participants between 1816 and 1980. This file contains 139 records, each containing 36 variables. An internal war is classified as a major civil war if (a) military action was involved, (b) the national government at the time was actively involved, (c) effective resistance (as measured by the ratio of fatalities of the weaker to the stronger forces) occurred on both sides and (d) at least 1,000 battle deaths resulted during the civil war. The geographical area in which the war was fought is also coded as well as whether nations outside the civil war actively and overtly participated on one side or the other. The duration, beginning and ending dates of the civil war, and the pre-war population and number in the armed forces of each participant are also included. The third dataset describes the international disputes that occurred from 1817 through 1976. International disputes are distinguished from international wars if fewer than 1,000 total fatalities are incurred by all the disputants involved. The file contains 967 records, each containing 51 variables. The participants involved in each dispute are identified using Singer-Small nation numbers. The level of hostility reached by each participant is also coded as well as whether or not a major power was among the nations involved in the dispute, the beginning and ending dates of each dispute, the total number of non-civilian fatalities that resulted and any special characteristics that may be associated with a dispute (e.g., whether a dispute eventually escalated into a Singer-Small war).


SUBJECT TERMS: aggression. arms race. civil violence. conflict. cross-national. dyads. international affairs. international system. nation dyads. nations. nations over time. violence. war.

Media/File Reports:

ICPSR Direct