Catalog of Holdings

Study Report

Study Number: CA-016-046-1-1-United States-ICPSR-1968

Subject Area: Economic Attitudes and Behavior

Bibliographic Citation: Panel study of income dynamics, family records, 1968-1989 [waves I-XXII].  [machine-readable data file] / Morgan, James N.  [principal investigator(s)] / Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research  [distributor].

Originating Archive Number: 7439

Access Status: Access limited to UW-Madison campus

Documentation: Two sets of 3-volume hard copy (shared with CA-016-045 and CA-016-047).

Abstract: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) is an ongoing data collection effort begun in 1968 in an attempt to fill the need for a better understanding of the determinants of family income and its changes. The PSID has continued to trace individuals from the original national sample of approximately 4,800 households, whether or not those individuals are living in the same dwelling or with the same people. The investigators hoped to discover whether most short-term changes in economic status are due to forces outside the family or if they can be traced to something in the individual's own background or in the pattern of his or her thinking and behavior. The theoretical model of economic behavior underlying the research is dynamic. It was hypothesized that personality variables affect economic behavior, which in turn affects economic status. Changes in economic status as well as its level are linked back to the personality variable and the circle is closed. Outside forces may, of course, affect all three. The data can shed light on what causes family income to rise above or fall below the poverty line. In line with the theoretical model, the questions asked fall generally under the headings of economic status, economic behavior, demographics, and attitudes. Specifically, they deal with topics such as employment, income sources and amounts, housing, car ownership, food expenditures, transportation, do-it-yourself home maintenance and car repairs, education, disability, time use, family background, family composition changes, and residential location. A series of questions designed to measure attitudes and personality is also included. Core data (Parts 1-3) are collected annually, and each new wave of data through 1989 has been merged into the files. Supplemental information on additional topics, such as health, wealth, retirement plans, flows of time and money, help among families and their friends, and motivation and efficacy, is gathered on an intermittent basis. For 1990, 1991, and 1992, ''early release'' versions of the core data are available as Parts 201-204. These are preliminary files which are incompletely documented and should be ordered by only the most experienced PSID users. Unlike previous years, for 1990-1992 the Family data are provided as single-year files, while Individual data are provided in one merged file for 1968-1992 (with both Response and Nonresponse individuals for all waves of the study on the file). Data from the Latino sample are included. Part 4, the 1985 Ego-Alter File, presents information on retrospective histories of marriages, childbirth, adoption, and substitute parenting. This file can be used in conjunction with Part 2, the Family-Individual File. Part 5, the 1984-1987 Work History Supplement File, contains more detailed information on individual employment histories than is presented in the main files, including multiple job changes. Part 6, the Validation Study, was designed to assess the quality of cross-sectional and over-time economic data obtained in the PSID. The first wave of the Validation Study was conducted in 1983 and a second wave was conducted in 1987. The standard PSID questionnaire was administered to a sample drawn from a single large manufacturing firm. Questionnaire results were compared to company records in order to verify respondents' answers to questions such as hours worked, sick time taken, periods of unemployment, and changes of position within the company. Part 7, the Time and Money Transfers Supplement File, 1988, is designed to facilitate access to the detailed information collected in the 1988 wave of the PSID regarding transfers, in the form of time and money, between a PSID family unit and other persons during the 1987 calendar year. Parts 8-10 comprise the PSID Latino sample data. For these files, a Latino was defined as having at least one parent solely of Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican ancestry OR having at least two (any two) grandparents solely of Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican ancestry. Part 8 offers data on individuals who were members of the 2,043 households in the 1990 PSID Latino sample. This sample was taken from Temple University's 1989 Latino National Political Survey (LNPS). To permit comparisons across ethnic groups, a second file, Part 9, is provided. This file contains data on members of the original 1989 PSID sample. In order to focus on nonresponse issues, Part 10 is included. This file presents data on Latino individuals who responded to the 1989 LNPS but were not successfully followed and reinterviewed in the 1990 PSID Latino wave. Information is included on language proficiency, immigration, family earnings, school status, general health status, and employment. Part 12, the Marriage History File, 1985-1989 (Waves XVIII-XXII), includes identifiers for each individual and his/her spouse, dates of marriage, divorce, and widowhood, total number of marriages, order of the marriages, and most recent wave when data were collected. This file is designed to be linked with Parts 2 and 3, the 1968-1989 Family-Individual Respondent and Family-Individual Nonrespondent files, from which more detailed information on individuals may be obtained. Part 13, Relationship History File, 1968-1985 (Waves I-XVIII), presents information on pairs of individuals who were members of family units descended from a common, original family in the 1968 sample. The study is designed to identify relationships that might not be evident using traditional data collection methods, which often define relationships in terms of the relationship of the individual to the head of household. There are two records for each pair (one record per individual). Variables include relationship, age, gender, and a set of residential status variables. This file is designed for use with the 1968-1985 Family-Individual Respondent and Nonrespondent data from Parts 15 and 16 and should not be used with files from other years. Part 17, Childbirth and Adoption History File, 1985-1989 (Waves XVIII-XXII), is built from the 1985 Ego-Alter file and is designed to facilitate access to detailed information collected in the 1985 through 1989 waves of the PSID regarding retrospective histories of childbirth and adoption. This information serves to clarify relationships between individuals in the PSID by distinguishing biological ties and step relations from biological/adoption relations. Each record contains all present-year and past-year details about the timing and circumstances of childbirth and adoption experiences for an individual up to and including 1989. Variables include the identifiers for each parent and child, dates of birth for both parent and child, birth order, birth weight, date of death for a child, year of most recent report, and number of births/adoptions. This file can be used in conjunction with Parts 2 and 3, the 1968-1989 Family-Individual Files.

SOURCE: personal and telephone interviews, and census data

UNIVERSE: Households that had at least one member of the noninstitutionalized population of the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia. The portion of the sample called the SRC subsample, when taken by itself, was representative of the households in the coterminous United States in 1968. The second subsample consisted of the low-income nonelderly households sampled by the Census Bureau for the 1966-1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. These households, drawn with unequal probabilities of selection that depended on geographic location, age, race, and income, were added to the sample to insure that there would be a sufficient number of low-income and, especially, Black low-income households to permit separate analyses of these populations. The universe for the Latino files is all Mexicans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans residing in the United States.

SAMPLE: The sample is a combination of a representative cross-section of nearly 3,000 families selected from the Survey Research Center's (SRC's) master sampling frame and a subsample of about 1,900 low-income families previously interviewed by the Census Bureau for the Office of Economic Opportunity. The combined sample is appropriately weighted to be representative of all people in the United States. Heads of the same families have been interviewed each year since 1968, as have the heads of families containing members who were part of a 1968 household and later left to start households of their own or to join another household. Panel losses have been more than offset by the addition of these newly formed families, bringing the present sample size to over 7,000. The sample for Part 6, the Validation Study, was drawn from a single large manufacturing firm in the Detroit area. For Parts 8-10, the Latino sample data, the sample was taken from Temple University's 1989 Latino National Political Survey, which employed a multistage area probability sampling design using 1980 Census data. The geographic area of coverage included at least 90 percent of the Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican populations.

NOTE: (1) Each additional year of data has been merged into both the Family and the Family-Individual files for data through 1989. Beginning with the 1990 data, the files are being provided as single-year files instead of merging the Family files to form a single data record. (2) The Early Release Data for the 1990-1992 waves are preliminary and should be ordered by experienced PSID users only. Documentation for these files is incomplete, and PSID staff will offer virtually no assistance with their use. ICPSR can offer only technical assistance in reading the files, and can provide no substantive advice on their use. These files will be replaced with the final version of the data when it has been completed, and all but the most experienced users are asked to wait until that time to order the data. (3) Weights are provided for analysis. The weights for individuals are different than those for families.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 17 data files + machine-readable documentation (text) + OSIRIS dictionaries.

DATA TYPE: survey data, and aggregate data

DATA FORMAT: OSIRIS (Parts 1-5, 7-10, 15-17, 201-204) and LRECL

TIME PERIOD: 1968-1992


FUNDING AGENCY: National Science Foundation, Ford Foundation, United States Department of Labor, Sloan Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, Spencer and Tinker Foundation, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Aging, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Economic Opportunity, United States Department of Health and Human Services.




Media/File Reports:

ICPSR Direct