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A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns, 1787-1825 (Philip J. Lampi and American Antiquarian Society; Tufts University Digital Collection and Archives)
A New Nation Votes provides data from America's earliest elections, between 1787 and 1825. The electoral data from the site covers offices from the United States president down to local offices such as alderman and county coroner. The data is the result of decades of research using sources such as newspapers and county histories and primarily collected by researcher Philip J. Lampi. The site represents a collaboration between the American Antiquarian Society and Tufts University Digital Collection and Archives, with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities. A New Nation Votes is searchable by keyword, state, year, office, candidate, and party. Results are in HTML tables, with links to view PDFs of Lampi's original notebook pages. The entire dataset or data by state may also be downloaded for analysis.

African Elections Database (Albert C. Nunley)
The African Elections Database carries election results for sub-Saharan Africa, encompassing 48 countries plus Somaliland (not internationally recognized as a country). Information in the database was culled from a variety of online sources. The site contains one page for each country, with a political profile and then election results in HTML tables. The most recent elections added to the site appear to be from the year 2008.

African Elections Project (International Institute of ICT Journalism and Open Society Initiative for West Africa)
The African Elections Project aims to provide online information for elections in Africa, and also to provide training for African journalists in information communication technology (ICT) for election coverage. As of December 2010, the site lists Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, and Togo. The "results center" section of each country's site provides election results in HTML tables. In English and French.

American National Election Studies (ANES) (University of Michigan)
ANES conducts national surveys of the American electorate in presidential and midterm election years and carries out research and development work through pilot studies in odd-numbered years. The ANES time-series goes back to 1948. Under Resources menu are two interactive tools. Continuity Guide ( offers a comprehensive list of questions, organized thematically, that appear in ANES Time Series surveys starting in 1992. ANES Question Search ( allows users to search the ANES Time Series survey questions. Search results show the question text, matching search keywords, and the codebook record (if available). All ANES datasets are available for download at the website, free registration required.

Canadian Election Study (CES) (Canadian Election Study (CES))
The Canadian Election Study (CES) surveys Canadian voters "to explain what makes people decide to vote (or not to vote), and, if they do, what makes them decide to support a given party or candidate, and why parties gain or lose ground from one election to another." CES data are available from Ontario Data Documentation, Extraction Service and Infrastructure , which is a web-based data exploration, extraction and analysis tool that uses the Data Documentation Initiative (DDI) social science data standard.

Cattaneo Web archive of Italian election results and surveys (Fondazione di ricerca "Istituto Carlo Cattaneo" Istituto Carlo Cattaneo)
The Cattaneo Web Archive of Italian Election Results and Surveys offers information regarding Italian Elections dating back to 1990 and going onwards to 1996. The site also includes Bologna Elections results and surveys from 1984 and 1994, Italian Election Abstention Surveys from 1985, 1990 and 1995 and Italian Election Results by Commune from 1946-1996. Data is presented via the SDA interface. Abstracts are available in Italian and English.

Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE) (Tufts University)
CIRCLE, the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement, describes itself as"A non-partisan research center studying youth civic engagement and civic eduation." CIRCLE's research focuses on Americans between the ages of 15 and 25.

Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) (Comparative Study of Electoral Systems)

"The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) is a collaborative program of research among election study teams from around the world. Participating countries include a common module of survey questions in their post-election studies. The resulting data are deposited along with voting, demographic, district and macro variables. The studies are then merged into a single, free, public dataset for use in comparative study and cross-level analysis."

Three modules are available for download: 1996-2001, 2001-2006, and 2006-2011. Free registration required.

Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA) (Ken Kollman, Center for Political Studie. University of Michigan)

Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA) is a repository of detailed election results at the constituency level for lower house legislative elections from around the world. It covers close to 1,800 elections from 154 countries and territories. These data are ready for analysis and publicly available at no cost. In addition to Stata .dta and SPSS portable files, CLEA data are also available in R .RData format, SAS, and CSV. CLEA project has created the GeoReferenced Electoral Districts (GRED) files. These are georeferenced maps provide the boundaries for electoral districts and link to the constituencies in CLEA's election archive. Maps are provided in three file formats: ESRI Geodatabase, open-source GeoPackage, and ESRI Shapefile. The GRED codebook describes how these file formats can be used.

Dave Leip's U.S. Election Atlas (Dave Leip)

The U.S. Election Atlas provides some election data free and some for a fee. The free offerings include an electoral vote calculator, as well as presidential election results nationally and by state through the course of US history, and by county for some years. However, the data is not in an easily-manipulable form and breaks out only the major candidates, particularly at the state level, making it more useful for look-ups than for analysis. Excel-format data files are available for purchase. Data-Planet Statistical Datasets subscribed by the UW-Madison includes David Leip's election data sets.

Note: the U.S. Election Atlas goes against the prevailing "red state, blue state" convention, coloring its maps blue for Republicans and red for Democrats.

Election Administration & Voting Survey (U.S. Election Assistance Commission)
The Election Administration and Voting Survey (EAVS) provides information related to election administration, registration and voting on the national, state, and county level. It includes data on Voter Registration, Uniformed and Overseas Voters, Early, Absentee, and Provisional Voting, Voting Equipment Usage, Poll Workers, Polling Places, and Precincts. After a federal election, EAVS questionnaires are sent to election officials in 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Since 2004, it has been conducted every two years. Check out EAVS Fact Sheet for a quick overview.

Election Data Services (Election Data Services)
This company specializes in election and reapportionment issues, selling data files and maps and posters in addition to related services. Election data files are by county for national races (President, Senate, House, governor) back to 1988; the site also offers a ZIP+DISTRICT file that links five- and nine-digit ZIP codes to Congressional districts, and GIS district boundary files. All products are fee-based.

Electoral Vote Predictor (Andrew Tanenbaum)
The Electoral Vote Predictor site has been compiling state-by-state U.S. pre-election polls from multiple sources since the November 2004 election, and parlaying the results into vote predictions for the Electoral College. All of the polling results are available as .xls and .csv files. Other interesting features include a comparison of results by pollster, and an animated map depicting the poll result predictions through time. The poll-related content of the site is non-partisan, but the links to political humor and political sites do reflect partisan (Democrat/libertarian) leanings.

European Election Database (Norwegian Social Science Data Services (NSD))
The European Election Database exists to allow researchers to compare election results across countries and over time. The database covers 31 countries from 1990 forward. According to the site, "Datasets can be accessed, analyzed, and visualized with maps, graphs and tables through the Nesstar system. In addition to direct on-line access, data can be downloaded and/or exported to spreadsheet format."

Explaining the Turnout Decline in Canadian Federal Elections: A New Survey of Non-voters (Elections Canada / Decima Research and Jon H. Pammett, Carleton University; Lawrence LeDuc, University of Toronto)
This March 2003 report examines potential reasons for turnout decline in Canadian Federal Elections through a phone survey with 960 reported voters and 960 reported non-voters in April 2002 (5,637 respondents completed short screening interviews to produce the sample for the longer questionnaire). The website contains the data in Excel, SPSS POR and SPSS SAV formats; the questionnaire and methodology in PDF; and the final report in PDF.

Federal Election Commission (Federal Election Commission)
The FEC came onto the web scene in mid-February, 1996, and has been serving downloadable campaign finance data ever since. Both summary and detailed data are available. The data available range from zip files that contain individual contributions to political committees and may exceed 100 megabytes to single page summary pdf and xls files.

Federal Elections Project: 2000 Election Data by State (David Lublin (American University) and D. Steven Voss (University of Kentucky))
The Federal Elections Project sets out to match the precinct-level results of the U.S. federal election in 2000 with demographic data (primarily figures on voting age residents and ethnic/race categories) from the 2000 U.S. Census, generally at the town or county level. Although the focus is on federal offices, the data includes results from the eleven states holding gubernatorial elections in 2000. Most state files contain a MS Excel comma-delimited file along with a readme file that details the contents of the data file.

Five Thirty Eight (Nate Silver)
Five Thirty Eight created by Nate Silver takes its name from the total number of US electors. It covered a broad spectrum of subjects including politics, sports, science, economics, and popular culture.

Lijphart Elections Archive (University of California, San Diego)
The Lijphart Elections Archive, housed in the University of California, San Diego Library, is a static research collection of district level election results for approximately 350 national legislative elections in 26 countries up through 2003. The objective of the Archive is to systematically collect election statistics in as much detail as possible, including, as a minimum, the results at the level of the individual election districts in which votes are converted into seats.

Mannheim Center for European Social Research (MZES) (Mannheim Center for European Social Research, Germany)
Founded as an institute of the University of Mannheim in 1989, the Center's research focuses on "cultural, societal and socio-economic bases of the living conditions of the inhabitants of European countries." In German and English.

MIT Election Data and Scicence Lab (MEDSL) (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
The MIT Election Data and Science Lab Election Lab (MEDSL) focuses on research that improves the critical voting infrastructure: the official mechanisms, administration, and logistics of the United States electoral system. It supports cutting-edge research in the field, develops research datasets, provides a clearing house for access to datasets, and coordinates research activities among affiliated research centers. Data for recent elections can be found via Data link. Tools and Resources has a useful software repository and other data resources recommended by MEDLS.

National Annenberg Election Survey (NAES) (Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania)
The National Annenberg Election Survey (NAES) examines a wide range of political attitudes about candidates, issues and the traits Americans want in a president during the presidential election years 2000, 2004, and 2008. It has a particular emphasis on the effects of media exposure through campaign commercials and news from radio, television and newspapers. It also measures the effects of other kinds of political communication, from conversations at home and on the job to various efforts by campaigns to influence potential voters. 2004 and 2008 NAES contains panel surveys around key campaign events: pre-post primary election, pre-post conventions, pre-post debates, and pre-post general election. Users can request access to NAES data from its website. The 2000 and 2004 NAES datasets are available at DISC. The 2000 NAES has an accompanying book Capturing Campaign Dynamics: The National Annenberg Election Survey from Oxford University Press.

National Asian American Surveys (Karthick Ramakrishnan and Jennifer Lee)
The 2008 National Asian American Survey (NAAS) is a nationally representative survey of self-identified Asian/Asian American residents of the United States. The survey included questions about political behavior and attitudes as well as personal experiences in immigration to the United States. The 2016 NAAS is composed of two waves. Individual-level data from the Fall 2016 National Asian American Survey was fielded from August through October 2016 while the Post-Election Survey was fielded from November 2016 through February 2017. 2016 NAAS contains nationally representative data from telephone interviews of adult U.S. residents who self-identified as Asian/Asian American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, White, African American/Black, Hispanic/Latino, and Multiracial. Codebook, questionnaires, and microdata in either Stata or SPSS formats are available from this site.

November 2004 Exit Polls at MSNBC (MSNBC)
The MSNBC web site provides HTML tables of exit polling from November 2, 2004. Presidential exit poll results are available nationally and by state, with statewide results for Senate and Governor's races as well.

Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research (Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research)
"The Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research (PSR) is an independent nonprofit institution and think tank of policy analysis and academic research. PSR was founded with the goal of advancing scholarship and knowledge on immediate issues of concern to Palestinians in three areas: domestic politics and government, strategic analysis and foreign policy, and public opinion polls and survey research." Users can look at polls dating back to 1993 regarding Palestinian attitudes towards the conflict with Israel. Some polls are in SPSS sav format. Poll results are available as pdf files.

POLIDATA (Clark Bensen)
This site sells demographic and election data, including vote history by county back to 1920 for presidential elections and back to the 1980s for statewide elections. Data is also available for other geographic aggregations such as OMB Metropolitan Statistical Areas and A.C. Nielsen Designated Market Areas. Other Polidata offerings include election-related maps and litigation support. Most products are fee-based; however, at you can click on links to each state and then scroll down to the bottom of the state page for PDF documents comprising: maps, presidential and congressional results by district from 1992, presidential results by county from 1980, and some statewide election history.

Political Moneyline (CQ Roll Call)
Political Moneyline packages campaign contribution data from the Federal Election Commission (FEC) on this site, for the election cycles from 1980 through the current cycle. Free information includes news briefs, federal candidate profiles, a donor lookup, PAC/party profiles, and more. Subscription information includes a soft money database, lobbying expenditures, and PAC contributions broken out by Committees of Congress.

Polling The Nations: The Ultimate Survey Database (UW-Madison Subscription) (ORS Publishing)
Polling the Nations is an online database of public opinion polls containing the full text of 600,000+ questions and responses, from 18,000+ surveys and 1,700+ polling organizations, conducted from 1986 through the present in the United States and more than 100 other countries around the world. Note: UW-Madison subscribes to this resource via IP authentication. Non-UW-Madison users may visit the Polling the Nations site at

Psephos - Adam Carr's Election Archive (Adam Carr)
The Psephos site is dedicated to the posting of election results worldwide (174 countries as of 2006). Results are culled from sources such newspaper reports or government web sites, and reformatted as text documents. Coverage varies by country, but the Australian section is particularly strong, going back to 1901, and current coverage of small countries is impressive as well, with frequent updates across the site.

Qualitative Data Repository (QDR) (the Center for Qualitative and Multi-Method Inquiry, Syracuse University)
Qualitative Data Repository (QDR) stores and shares digital data generated through qualitative and multi-method research in the social sciences. It is funded by the National Science Foundation, hosted by the Center for Qualitative and Multi-Method Inquiry, a unit of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. In the United States, social scientists have used qualitative data to advance a range of analytical, interpretive, and inferential goals. Traditionally qualitative data have been collected and used by the principal investigators and rarely shared because there is a lack of suitable venue for storing and sharing such data. QDR is created to fill this gap. It plans to expand and ease access to qualitative social science data to facilitate research, promote teaching and learning. Users can browse the projects and files at QDR but are required to register to access and download them.

RealClearPolitics (polling section) (RealClearPolitics)
RealClearPolitics is a right-leaning political analysis site founded in 2000 by John McIntyre and Tom Bevan. The polling section of the site includes links to national and state polls, polling averages, and electoral college maps, including maps from elections back to 1968. The site also featured a fantasy marketplace game based on the Intrade online futures trading market, at, where participants could bet pretend-money on their political picks.

Record of American Democracy, 1984-1990 (Gary King and Bradley Palmquist)
"The Record Of American Democracy (ROAD) data includes election returns, socioeconomic summaries, and demographic measures of the American public at unusually low levels of geographic aggregation. The NSF-supported ROAD project covers every state in the country from 1984 through 1990 (including some off-year elections). One collection of datasets includes every election at and above State House, along with party registration and other variables, in each state for the roughly 170,000 precincts nationwide (about 60 times the number of counties). Another collection has added to these (roughly 30-40) political variables an additional 3,725 variables merged from the 1990 U.S. Census for 47,327 aggregate units (about 15 times the number of counties) about the size one or more cities or towns. These units completely tile the U.S. landmass. The collection also includes geographic boundary files so users can easily draw maps with these data."

Resource Center for Minority Data (RCMD) (Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR))
The Resource Center for Minority Data (RCMD) is one of a growing number of special-purpose subsets within the vast data collections of the ICPSR. The focus of the RCMD is data for comparative analysis of issues affecting racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. The subject coverage of the selected studies runs the gamut from education to housing to poverty to political participation. RCMD data falls into two general categories: studies that focus specifically on minority populations, such as the National Black Election Studies series; and studies with large enough sample sizes or ethnic/racial oversampling to permit meaningful analysis of issues that affect race and ethnic minority populations, such as the American Housing Survey series. While documentation is freely browsable, data download is available only to ICPSR member institutions, including UW-Madison.

Social Science Japan Data Archive (SSJDA) (Center for Social Research and Data Archives, Institute of Social Science, University of Tokyo)
The Social Science Japan Data Archive (SSJDA) is affiliated with the Center for Social Research and Data Archives in the Institute of Social Science (ISS) at the University of Tokyo. SSJDA collects, maintains, and provides access to social science data to researchers who are interested in Japanese quantitative data for secondary analyses. Users are required to fill out online applications and get approval before they can access datasets housed in SSJDA. Most of the datasets are in Japanese.

The Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES) (Stephen Ansolabehere and Douglas Rivers)
The Cooperative Congressional Election Study is designed to study congressional elections and representation using very large scale national surveys. Its questionnaires consist of Common Content, Team Content and Group Content. They include demographic indicators, party identification, ideology, pre-election and post-election questions and contextual information about representatives, candidates, and elections. CCES' sample identifiers include region, state, county, congressional district, zip code, and designated market area (DMA). CCES data and documentation files are downloadable via links to Harvard Dataverse.

The Hotline from National Journal (UW-Madison Subscription) (National Journal)
The Hotline is the National Journal's "daily briefing on politics." Up-to-date material is provided on a number of pressing issues. The site is a virtual newspaper with a number of columns, almanacs, and reports on various election races throughout the country. Note: UW-Madison subscribes via IP authentication.

U.S. Election Counts Since 1920 (Clerk of the House, U.S. House of Representatives)
This site provides official state-by-state vote counts in federal elections from 1920 through 2016. All years are available as PDF documents.

Understanding America Study (UAS) (Center for Economic and Social Research (CESR), University of Southern California)
The USC Understanding America Study (UAS) is a nationally representative online panel managed at the University of Southern California. It includes a Native American subset. UAS participants use computers, tablets and/or smartphones to answer UAS surveys on a wide range of topics: elections, disaster response, health, aging, and finances. UAS site offers data visualization tools for summary reports. Visitors can view documents of UAS surveys and their individual variables. UAS data are available to researchers after they fill out a registration form on the site.

United Kingdom Election Results (1983-2005) (David Boothroyd)
David Boothroyd created this site of British Parliamentary Election results, going back in some cases as far as 1983, with an emphasis on including the entire range of parties.

University Information System - Russia (UIS RUSSIA) (Research Computing Center and Economic Faculty (Lomonosov Moscow State University))
This online collection, primarily in Russian, contains a wealth of information about Russia since the early 1990s. It was introduced in 2000 "and has been designed as a digital library for research and educational purposes, primarily in the fields of economic and social sciences." It is geared toward university users. Contents include statistical databases which cover 83 Russian regions and twenty thousand municipal units. 'Statistical databases are complimented by the UIS RUSSIA 'Integrated Collection' publications covering vast social domains. Contents include official data and documents from legislative, executive and judicial branches (laws, presidential decrees and directives, executive branch enactments, acts and regulations); international agreements signed by the Russian Federation; transcripts (daily stenograms) of the State Duma; reports from the Russian Federal agencies; analytical journals and publications of the major policy research institutes ('think tanks'); documents from the various international organizations and foreign universities.' Certain areas of the collection, and a collection-wide search, are free to any user; other parts of the site are password-protected, including the Russian Federation state statistics. Please visit DISC in person to be logged in with username and password.

Voter Turnout from 1945 to Date (International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA))
This site covers national presidential and parliamentary elections since 1945 for over 171 countries. Year, total vote, registration, turnout percentages, and population size are included for each election.

Voting America: United States Politics, 1840-2008 (Digital Scholarship Lab, University of Richmond)

The Voting America site presents animated maps of presidential election data at the county level across time (actual returns, margin of victory, party strength, population, voter turnout).

The centerpiece of the animated "cinematic maps" is a timeline tour through presidential election data from 1840 onward. Cinematic maps for individual elections show a series of thematic maps, from state results to county results to numbers of votes to margins of victory. Another series of cinematic maps shows population growth over time for white and African American residents. Users can also choose "interactive maps" and pick their own years and indicators to display. An additional section of the site provides analysis and commentary in video form.

The underlying data for the Voting America site come from ICPSR study #8611 for the years 1840-1972, and from Polidata for 1976-2004.

Voting and Registration Data (U.S.) (U.S. Bureau of the Census)
The Current Population Survey (CPS) collects information on reported voting and registration by various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in November of each congressional and presidential election year. Historical time-series tables back to 1964 are available, as well as detailed reports and tables since 1994.

Wisconsin Campaign Finance Project (Ken Mayer, University of Wisconsin - Madison)
The Wisconsin Campaign Finance Project goals "are to measure the impact of 'clean elections' programs on state politics, and provide empirically-based analysis to policy makers in the design and implementation of publicly-funded campaign finance programs". The project has posted campaign finance data for six states: Arizona, Hawaii, Maine, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Wisconsin, plus New York City. Data coverage varies between states, but generally covers from about 1990 to 2004 or 2006.

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