Current Demographic Research Report #17, February 2, 2004.

CDERR (Current Demographic Research Reports) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. This report will contain selected listings of new: reports, articles, bibliographies, working papers, tables of contents, conferences, data, and websites. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


Index to this issue:


National Center for Health Statistics Chartbook
_Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report_ Article
World Health Organization Information Site
Bureau of Labor Statistics Periodical
Department of Housing and Urban Development Report
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Report
US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service Report
General Accounting Office Report
Allen Guttmacher Institute State Policies Briefs
Urban Institute Reports
Luxembourg Income Study Monographs
Kaiser Family Foundation Reports
Info Health Pop. Reporter


University of Michigan Population Studies Center
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
University of Molise


Other Journals


Population Reference Bureau


University of North Carolina School of Public Health
Luxembourg Income Study Workshop


National Institutes of Health


US Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Testimony


Columbia University CEISIN-SEDAC
Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service
Department of Housing and Urban Development



National Center for Health Statistics Chartbook: "Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization," by A.B. Bernstein, E. Hing, A.J. Moss, K.F. Allen, A.B. Siller, and R.B. Tiggle (Jan. 2004, .pdf format, 152p.).

Click on "View/download PDF" for full text.

_Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report_ Article: "Prevalence of Cigarette Use Among 14 Racial/Ethnic Populations --- United States, 1999--2001" (Centers for Disease Control, _MMWR_ Vol. 53, No. 3, Jan. 30, 2004, p. 49-52, HTML and .pdf format).



World Health Organization Information Site: WHO has added a web page devoted to Avian influenza which tracks the latest developments of this disease.

Bureau of Labor Statistics Periodical:"Compensation and Working Conditions Online." The latest articles are dated Jan. 28, 2004.

Department of Housing and Urban Development Report: "The Destruction of Housing Capital: A Preliminary Exploration into Demolitions and Disasters" (November 2003, .pdf format, 18p.).

Abstract excerpt:

With the exception of fine art and jewelry, housing is the most durable of all consumer expenditures. According to the American Housing Survey (AHS), more than ten million units constructed prior to 1920 still survive in the United States. European cities and the surrounding countryside provide countless examples of structures built in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries that continue to furnish safe and comfortable habitats. Yet numerous housing units -- both old and new -- are torn down or otherwise destroyed every year in this country. Between 1999 and 2001, 1.5 million housing units disappeared permanently. Fires and natural disasters account for some of these losses but owners voluntarily demolished many other units. We know little about this phenomenon. For example, how much capital is lost annually, which units are most susceptible to being lost, and what motivates owners to destroy housing capital?...This paper has two modest goals. First, we will examine how to use the AHS to study these questions. The AHS has features that make it well suited to an analysis of housing loss, particularly its large sample size, extensive information on the physical characteristics of the units, good neighborhood data, and the ability to track the same unit over time. However, researchers must first deal with a number of conceptual and data problems. Second, we will use the AHS to analyze, in a preliminary fashion, what units are destroyed and why."

Click on "Open the PDF file" for full text.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Report: "Juvenile Arrests 2001," by Howard Snyder (NCJ 201370, December 2003, HTML and .pdf format, 11p.).


Summarizes and analyzes national and State juvenile arrest data presented in the FBI's report _Crime in the United States 2001_. As reported in this OJJDP Bulletin, juvenile violent crime arrests increased dramatically from the late 1980s through 1994 and then began a steady downward trend. In 2001, the juvenile arrest rate for violent crime was 44 percent below its peak in 1994, reaching its lowest level since 1983. The juvenile arrest rate for each of the offenses tracked in the FBI's Violent Crime Index (murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) has been declining steadily since the mid-1990s; for murder, the rate fell 70% from its 1993 peak through 2001.

US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service Report: "Rural Education at a Glance," by Robert Gibbs (Rural Development Research Report No. RDRR98, January 2004, .pdf format, 6p.).


This report provides the latest information from the 2000 Census and other Federal sources on the education characteristics of rural workers and counties. It documents the steady rise in rural adult educational attainment in the 1990s and the increasing importance of education to rural workers and places. The report also finds that racial educational differences remain large and that adult education levels remain far below the national average in many rural counties, particularly in the South. Counties with more educated populations appear to have performed better economically in the 1990s and have lower poverty rates.

General Accounting Office Report: "2010 Census: Cost and Design Issues Need to Be Addressed" (GAO-04-37, January 2004, .pdf format, 58p.).

Note: This is a temporary address. GAO reports are always available at:

Allen Guttmacher Institute State Policies Briefs: "State Policies in Brief provide information on key issues affecting sexual and reproductive health and rights, updated monthly by The Alan Guttmacher Institute's policy analysts to reflect the most recent legislative, administrative and judicial actions." Briefs are available in the topics of: Abortion; Pregnancy and Birth; Prevention and Contraception; Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV; and Youth (.pdf format).

Urban Institute Reports:

A. "Outside the Walls: A National Snapshot of Community-Based Prisoner Reentry Programs," by Amy L. Solomon, Michelle Waul, Asheley Van Ness, and Jeremy Travis (January 2004, .pdf format, 199p.).

B. "Children in Low-Income Families Are Less Likely to Be in Center-Based Child Care," by Jeffrey Capizzano and Gina Adams (Snapshots of America's Families III No. 16, January 2003, HTML and .pdf format, 2p.).

Luxembourg Income Study Monographs:

A. _Poor Kids in a Rich Country: America's Children in Comparative Perspective_, by Lee Rainwater and Timothy M. Smeeding (Russell Sage Foundation, ISBN 0-87154-702-3, 35 US dollars).

B. _Families That Work: Policies for Reconciling Parenthood and Employment_, by Janet C. Gornick and Marcia K. Meyers (Russell Sage Foundation, ISBN 0-87154-356-7, 39.95 US dollars).

For more information on both monographs see:

and click on the links under "NEW LIS BOOKS".

Kaiser Family Foundation Reports:

A. "National Survey of Latinos: Education" (January 2004, HTML or .pdf format, Survey Toplines (.pdf format, 50p.); Chartpack and Summary of Findings (.pdf format, 57p.).


A comprehensive survey of Latino attitudes toward education, public schools and a variety of education issues, including the No Child Left Behind Act. This national survey is released against the backdrop of major changes in the nation's K-12 system as states and school districts apply sweeping new federal requirements. The survey includes substantial comparison samples of whites and African Americans.

B. "Sex Education in America" (January 2004, HTML or .pdf format, General Public/Parents Survey Toplines (.pdf format, 38p.); Survey of Principles Toplines (.pdf format, 19p.).


A new project by National Public Radio, the Kaiser Family Foundation, and Harvard University's Kennedy School examines Americans' views on sex education in the nation's public schools. The project reviews whether Americans think sex education should be taught in school, what kind of sex education should be taught, and surveys middle school and high school principals on what is actually happening in the schools.

C. "Lack of Coverage: A Long-Term Problem for Most Uninsured - January 2004" (.pdf format, 2p.). "This fact sheet, recently updated with 2002 data, describes how long the uninsured remain without coverage, who tends to go without insurance for long spells of time, and what difference time without coverage makes in terms of access to and utilization of care."

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Communication Programs Compendium: Info Health Pop. Reporter (Vol. 4, No. 5, Feb. 2, 2004). "The Johns Hopkins University Population Information Program delivers the reproductive health and family planning news you need. Each week our research staff prepares an electronic magazine loaded with links to key news stories, reports, and related developments around the globe."

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University of Michigan Population Studies Center:

A. "Effects of Economic Shocks on Children's Employment and Schooling in Brazil," by Suzanne Duryea, David Lam, and Deborah Levison (PSC Research Report 03-541, December 2003, .pdf format, 33p.).


This paper uses longitudinal employment survey data to analyze the impact of household economic shocks on the schooling and employment transitions of young people in metropolitan Brazil. The analysis is based on data from Brazil's Monthly Employment Survey (PME) from 1982 to 1999, using observations for over 100,000 children age 10-16. Taking advantage of the rotating panels in the PME, we compare households in which the male household head becomes unemployed during a four-month period with households in which the head is continuously employed. Our bivariate probit regressions indicate that an unemployment shock significantly increases the probability that a child enters the labor force and decreases the probability that the child advances in school. The effects can be large, implying increases of as much as 60% in the probability of entering employment for 16 year-old girls. We find that shocks occurring in the following year do not have significant effects, suggesting that our results are not due to unobserved characteristics of households that experience unemployment shocks. Our results suggest that some households are not able to absorb short-run economic shocks, with negative consequences for children.

B. "Health Care Prices, Health, and Labor Outcomes: Experimental Evidence," by William H. Dow, Paul Gertler, Robert F. Schoeni, John Strauss, and Duncan Thomas (PSC Research Report 03-542, December 2003, .pdf format, 41p.).


While the demand for health care has been shown to decline as prices rise, little is known about the impact of raising user fees on health outcomes or other dimensions of well-being such as labor supply and wages. Drawing on evidence from social experiments conducted in the United States and Indonesia, we examine the effect of an increase in the costs of health care on a series of indicators of health status, labor force participation and wages of men and women. The estimated impact of prices on health outcomes depends critically on the specific indicator under study. More subjective health indicators appear to be contaminated by measurement error which is correlated with use of health care and, therefore, prices. For example, when health prices are raised, some measures, such as self-reported general health status, improve. However, health indicators that might be thought of as being more objective, such as activities of daily living, worsen as prices rise. This deleterious impact of higher prices on health spills over to the labor market where higher health prices are associated with reduced participation, and possibly wages, particularly among poorer, older men and women. The experimental results speak to a question that has been very difficult to resolve with non-experimental data: does health have a causal effect on labor outcomes? The balance of the evidence provides an affirmative answer to that question, particularly in low-income settings.

C. "Estimates of Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers Using California Administrative Data," by Robert F. Schoeni and Michael Dardia (PSC Research Report 03-543, December 2003, .pdf format, 27p.).


This study estimates earnings losses of displaced workers using administrative data which tracks 833,004 workers in California between 1989 and 1994. The study finds that earnings losses: i) are 17-25 percent 3-5 years after displacement, ii) are related to the economic conditions at the time of displacement, and iii) vary by firm size, change in industry of employment, and number of subsequent separations.

D. "What Has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure," by Robert F. Schoeni and Rebecca M. Blank (PSC Research Report 03-544, December 2003, .pdf format, 52p.).


This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this paper are convincing in part because they are consistent across alternative approaches and with recent experimental evidence. We find that these policy changes reduced public assistance participation and increased family earnings. The result was a rise in total family income and a decline in poverty. Waivers also increased labor market involvement among the less-skilled, but the 1996 reforms had little additional impact on work behavior after controlling for economic forces. These policies also appeared to increase marriage and reduce female household headship. The gains from the 1996 reforms were not as broadly distributed across the distribution of less-skilled women as were the effects of waivers.

E. "Support Networks within the Family as a Public Good Problem," by Robert F. Schoeni (PSC Research Report 03-545, December 2003, .pdf format, 34p.).


This paper examines altruism and exchange models of familial relationships. It first examines the predictions of these models when there are more than two family members, demonstrating that altruism with multiple altruists is similar to the classic public good model. The paper also examines predictions of the altruism model under the assumption that the child acts strategically. It is traditionally assumed that parents unilaterally determine the amount of assistance they provide to their child. However, if one allows strategic behavior by the child, the classic prediction of complete neutralization of redistributive policies does not hold. Empirical analyses do not overwhelmingly support either of the two models; other motivations are likely to be important.

F. "Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy in the 1990s," by Steven Haider, Robert F. Schoeni, Yuhua Bao, and Caroline Danielson (PSC Research Report 03-546, December 2003, .pdf format, 23p.).


The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited immigrants' eligibility for government assistance programs. In fact, early estimates projected that nearly half of the savings associated with the 1996 reforms would come from eligibility restrictions placed on immigrants. Moreover, it has been argued that the intense political debate surrounding the eligibility of immigrants for government assistance and a misunderstanding of the so-called "public charge" rule caused immigrants not to apply for assistance, even if eligible, for fear of difficulties with naturalization or even deportation. This study investigates these issues by examining changes in welfare participation following the 1996 reforms. We compare changes in participation for immigrants with natives to gauge the differential impact of the reforms on immigrants. It is found that participation in Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)/Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Food Stamps, Supplemental Security Income, and Medicaid fell faster for immigrants than natives. However, this finding can be explained by the fact that immigrants were located in labor markets that experienced more rapid growth during the post-reform period. After adjusting for differences in local labor market conditions, including the disparities in the responsiveness of immigrants to fluctuations in the economy, evidence that participation declined faster for immigrants is weakened substantially. The one major exception to this conclusion is the pattern of estimates in California, where the relative decline in AFDC/TANF does not appear to be explained by improvements in local economic conditions.

G. "Medicare Gaps and Widow Poverty," by Kathleen McGarry and Robert F. Schoeni (PSC Research Report 03-547, December 2003, .pdf format, 36p.).


Several categories of medical expenditures are not covered by Medicare, including prescription drugs, most nursing home stays, and extended hospital visits. Out-of-pocket costs for these items can be substantial, and what's more, they are likely to be concentrated at the end of life. At the same time, it is well documented that poverty is 3-4 times more common among widows than among similarly aged married women. This study examines the potential link between these two phenomena, asking the question: to what extent do out-of-pocket health care costs of a dying spouse affect the financial position of the survivor? We find that out-of-pocket medical spending increases substantially just prior to death, and that these expenditures are large relative to income for a large share of elderly couples. Simulations investigate the extent to which expansions in insurance coverage to include nursing home care or prescription drug coverage could improve the financial well-being of the surviving spouse.

H. "Health Disparities among Older Immigrants in the United States," by Melonie Heron, Robert F. Schoeni, and Leo Morales (PSC Research Report 03-548, December 2003, .pdf format, 21 p.).


In light of increased immigration to the U.S., our objective is to examine the unique patterns of health status among immigrants aged 55 and over across a wide array of racial and ethnic groups. We explore health disparities within the immigrant population and between immigrants and natives of the same racial/ethnic group. Logistic regression is used to analyze data from the 1992-1995 National Health Interview Survey. Immigrants are less likely than natives to report an activity limitation or to be obese, but more likely than natives to report themselves in poor or fair general health. There are significant differences among immigrants arriving from different countries and between immigrants and natives who are of the same race/ethnicity. For some groups and health measures, a large share of the differences are explained by disparities in socioeconomic status. Older immigrants are not a large enough share of the population, nor do they have distinct enough health status, to substantially alter the aggregate prevalence of health conditions in the total population. However, the diversity in health status within the immigrant population is enormous. These estimates can be used to target populations with especially high rates of obesity and limitations.

I. "Building Community: The Neighborhood Context of Local Social Organization," by Sapna Swaroop and Jeffrey D. Morenoff (PSC Research Report 03-549, January 2004, .pdf format, 36p.).


This study explores how neighborhood context influences participation in expressive and instrumental forms of local social organization. Through a multilevel-spatial analysis of residents in 342 Chicago neighborhoods, we investigate how neighborhood characteristics (e.g. residential stability, concentrated disadvantage, and physical and social disorder) are related to local social organization, after adjusting for potentially confounding individual-level covariates. Residential stability is associated with increased participation in expressive forms of social organization but not instrumental forms. Concentrated disadvantage and physical and social disorder are associated with increased participation in instrumental forms of social organization but are not strongly related to expressive forms. These findings provide qualified support for the systemic model of local social organization but challenge theories of urban poverty that predict lower levels of engagement in poor communities. We argue that the positive association between neighborhood poverty and social organization arises as a result of the heightened levels of social needs that accompany concentrated disadvantage. We also find that most forms of social organization are spatially dependent, meaning that they are influenced by the wider spatial context of surrounding neighborhoods. Thus, the contextual processes that influence social organization "spill over" the geographic boundaries of local neighborhoods.

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research:

A. "The case for negative senescence," by James W. Vaupel, Annette Baudisch, Martin Dolling, Deborah A. Roach, and Jutta Gampe (WP-2004-002, January 2004, .pdf format, 27p.).


Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence is theoretically possible. More generally, our models contribute to understanding of the evolutionary and demographic forces that mold the age trajectories of mortality, fertility and growth.

B. "Menopause and post-generative longevity: Testing the 'stopping-early' and 'grandmother' hypotheses," by Sara Grainger and Jan Beise (WP-2004-003, January 2004, .pdf format, 43p.).


The existence of menopause and post-generative longevity as part of the human females life history is somewhat puzzling from an evolutionary perspective. The 'stopping-early hypothesis' states that, because human infants are so altricial, it is beneficial for women to cease reproduction at the age at which the risk of maternal death reaches a certain threshold. In contrast, 'the grandmother hypothesis' states that survival long past the age of menopause has been selected for because grandmothers significantly improve grand-offspring survival probabilities. In this study, 'the stopping-early hypothesis' and 'the grandmother hypothesis' are tested for both the evolution of menopause and the evolution of post-generative longevity. This is done by simulating hypothetical life histories of women with and without menopause, with and without post-generative longevity, and with and without positive grandmother effects on infant survival. Results indicate that neither the benefits accrued from maternal care of late born offspring, nor grand-maternal facilitation of infant survival, are adequate to account for the evolution of menopause. With respect to the existence of post-generative longevity, rather than menopause, however, some level of support is found for both the stopping early and the grandmother hypothesis. The effects of removing post-generative grand-maternal care on long-term reproductive success are shown to be far greater than the effects of removing post-generative maternal care.

C. "The helping and the helpful grandmother - The role of maternal and paternal grandmothers in child mortality in the 17th and 18th century population of French Settlers in Quebec, Canada," by Jan Beise (WP-2004-004, January 2004, .pdf format, 29p.).

D. "'The husband's mother is the devil in house' - Data on the impact of the mother-in-law on stillbirth mortality in historical Krummhorn (C18-C19 Germany) and some thoughts on the evolution of postgenerative female life," by Eckart Voland and Jan Beise WP-2004-004, January 2004, .pdf format, 19p.)

University of Molise [Campobasso, Italy] Dipartmento di Scienze Economiche, Gestionali e Sociali: "Survey response and survey characteristics: Micro-level evidence from the ECHP," by Cheti Nicoletti and Franco Peracchi (Economics and Statistics Discussion Paper No. 15/04, December 2003, .pdf format, 26p.).

This paper presents some micro-level evidence on the role of the socio-demographic characteristics of the population and the characteristics of the data collection process as predictors of survey response. Our evidence is based on the public use files of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), a longitudinal household survey covering the countries of the European Union, whose attractive feature is the high level of comparability across countries and over time. We use individual-level information to predict response in the next wave given response in the current wave, focusing on how the probabilities of contact failure and refusal to cooperate vary with the socio-demographic composition of the national populations and the characteristics of the data collection process. We model the response process as the outcome of two sequential events; (i) the contact between the interviewer and an eligible interviewee, and (ii) the cooperation of the interviewee. Our model allows for dependence between the ease of contact and the propensity to cooperate, taking into account the censoring problem caused by the fact that we observe whether a person is a respondent only if she has been contacted.

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JOURNAL TABLES OF CONTENTS (check your library for availability):

INGENTA Tables of Contents: INGENTA provides fee based document delivery services for selected journals.

A. Point your browser to:

B. click on "browse by publication"
C. Click the "fax/ariel" radio button, type the Journal Name in the "by words in the title" search box and click "search".
D. View the table of contents for the issue noted.

AIDS (Vol. 17, Supplement 4, 2003).

American Economic Review (Vol. 93, No. 5, 2003). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library and the EBSCO Host Academic Search Elite Database. Check your library for the availability of these databases and this issue.

Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 26, No. 1, February 2004).

International Migration (Vol. 41, No. 5, December 2003).

Journal of Family History (Vol. 29, No. 4, January 2004).

Population Bulletin (Vol. 58, No. 4, 2003). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of this databases and this issue.

Other Journals:

Medical Care (Vol. 42, No. 1 and No. 1, Supplement, January 2004; No 2 and No.2 Supplement (February 2004).

Click on "Current Issue" tab for No. 2 Supplement, and then on "Previous Issue" to view other three tables of contents.

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Population Reference Bureau: "Senior Policy Analyst. "The Population Reference Bureau seeks a senior staff member to work in the International Programs Department. The person will be responsible for writing materials and coordinating writing projects that deal with population, health, and environment linkages; coordinating evaluation activities; monitoring country activities on PHE linkages; and conducting technical assistance overseas including capacity building." For more information see:

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University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Office of Continuing Education Annual Minority Health Conference: "Health and the Built Environment: The Effects of Where We Live, Work and Play," a conference to be held Feb. 27, 2004 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. For more information, including registration information, see:

Luxembourg Income Study Workshop: "2004 Luxembourg Income Study Summer Workshop," to be held Jun. 27 - Jul. 03, 2004 in Luxembourg.

Application (.pdf or Microsoft Word format):

Announcement (.pdf format, 1p.).

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National Institutes of Health: "NIH Director's Pioneer Award." "In a move to stimulate high-risk, high-impact medical research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is inviting nominations for the NIH Directors Pioneer Award Program, part of a series of far-reaching initiatives known collectively as the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. To inaugurate this new program, the NIH will provide up to $500,000 per year for five years to a highly select group of individuals who have the potential to make extraordinary contributions to medical research....The Directors Pioneer Award will encourage investigators in the biomedical, behavioral and social sciences, physical and chemical sciences, computer sciences, mathematics and engineering to take on creative, unexplored avenues of research related to the improvement of human health. While the research that will be funded may carry uncertain outcomes, the award will provide investigators with the resources and flexibility needed to pursue truly groundbreaking discoveries." For more information see:

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US Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Testimony:"What's Driving Health Care Costs and the Uninsured?" a hearing held Jan. 28, 2004.

Hearing Testimony (HTML, .pdf, Microsoft Word, or Powerpoint formats).

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Columbia University CEISIN-SEDAC/University of Michigan China Data Center, et. al.: Atlas of Population, Environment, and Sustainable Development of China (CD format, available free of charge, one CD per request maximum)."Sponsored by the State Environmental Protection Agency, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the University of Michigan China Data Center, and CIESIN at Columbia University, the English version of electronic Atlas of Population, Environment and Sustainable Development of China has now been published by the Science Press. This electronic atlas provides comprehensive information in text, tables and maps on population, resources, environment and economic development in China with most data updated to 2000. Desktop software has been developed to view the electronic map, query the data and extract data to external tables for further processing." For more information, including ordering information, see:

Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research:

A. ICPSR at the University of Michigan has made the 2001 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) available via its web based data analysis system (DAS) and Quick Tables (QT's) extraction system.

B. ICPSR at the University of Michigan has recently released the following datasets, which may be of interest to demography researchers. Note: Some ICPSR studies are available only to ICPSR member institutions. To find out whether your organization is a member, and whether or not it supports ICPSR Direct downloading, see:

National Crime Victimization Survey, 1992-2002 (#3691)

Multiple Cause of Death, 1968-1973 (#3905)

Multiple Cause of Death, 1974-1978 (#3906)

US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: "USDA Briefing Room: Rural Income, Poverty, and Welfare: High-Poverty Counties." This map joins a series of other maps and or data/briefs in the USDA ERS Rural Income, Poverty, and Welfare Briefing Room. Other topics include: Rural child poverty; Rural income; Rural poverty; Rural welfare; and Nonfarm earnings.

Department of Housing and Urban Development: "FY 2004 Income Limits" (January 2004, .pdf, Microsoft Word, and Excel format). "This memorandum transmits median family income and income distribution estimates for Fiscal Year 2004. They are calculated for each metropolitan and nonmetropolitan area using the Fair Market Rent (FMR) area definitions applied in the Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program."

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Jack Solock
Data Librarian--Center for Demography and Ecology
4470 Social Science
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706