Current Demographic Research Report #41, July 19, 2004.

CDERR (Current Demographic Research Reports) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. This report will contain selected listings of new: reports, articles, bibliographies, working papers, tables of contents, conferences, data, and websites. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


Index to this issue:


Census Bureau Report
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Report
USDA BSE Information
Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics Report
Bureau of Justice Statistics Report
US Department of Agriculture Report, Economic Research Service Report
United Nations Children's Fund Reports
World Health Organization Report, Photo Essay
Population and Health InfoShare Reports
Urban Institute Report
_JAMA_ Special HIV/AIDS Theme Issue
Medscape Article
Info Health Pop. Reporter


National Bureau of Economic Research
Washington University at St. Louis Economics Working Paper Archive
2004 United Kingdom Stata User's Group
Cambridge University Working Papers in Economics
Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Melbourne Institute


Other Journals


National Institutes of Health


National Center for Education Statistics/Census Bureau
Census Bureau
National Longitudinal Study
US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service


National Institutes of Health



Census Bureau Report: "A Profile of Older Workers in West Virginia," by Nick Carroll and Cynthia Taeuber (Local Employment Dynamics LED/OW-WV, July 2004, .pdf format, 22p.). The report is linked to from a Census Bureau news release: "As It Ages, West Virginia's Work Force Remains on the Job" (CB04-115, Jul. 15, 2004).

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Report: "Outpatient Prescription Medicines: A Comparison of Expenditures by Household-Reported Condition, 1987 and 2001," by Marie Stagnitti and Mamatha Pancholi (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, MEPS Statistical Brief No. 43, July 2004, HTML and .pdf format, 7p.).


This Statistical Brief summarizes differences in expenditures for outpatient prescription medicines reported for specific conditions by the household in the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population for the years 1987 and 2001. The data used are derived from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) and the Household Component of the 2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS-HC).

US Department of Agriculture bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, "mad cow disease") information:

A. "USDA And HHS Strengthen Safeguards Against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy" (USDA news release, Jul. 9, 2004, HTML and Microsoft Word format, 3p.).

Click on "Printable version" for link to Word document.

B. "Transcript of technical briefing regarding draft OIG (Office of the Inspector General) report on BSE surveillance with APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) Administrator Ron DeHaven and FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service) Administrator Barbara Masters - Washington DC - July 13, 2004" (HTML and .Microsoft Word format, 13p.).

Click on "Printable version" for link to Word document.

Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics Report: America's Children in Brief 2004: Key National Indicators of Well-Being. (2004, HTML and .pdf format, 17p.).

Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation Report:

A. "Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress 2004" (2004, HTML or .pdf format).

B. "Trends in the Well-Being of Americas Children and Youth 2003" (2004, .pdf format, 393p.).

Bureau of Justice Statistics Report: "Profile of Jail Inmates, 2002," by Doris J. James (NCJ 201932, July 2004, ASCII text and .pdf format, 12p. with .zip compressed spreadsheets).


Presents findings from the Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 2002, the only national source of detailed information on persons held in local jails. The report describes the characteristics of jail inmates in 2002, including offenses, conviction status, criminal histories, sentences, time served, drug and alcohol use and treatment, and family background. Characteristics of jail inmates include gender, race, and Hispanic origin. Changes since the 1996 inmate survey are examined. Data in 2002 were compiled from in-depth personal interviews with a nationally representative sample of nearly 7,000 inmates in about 417 local jails.

US Department of Agriculture Report, Economic Research Service Report: "Evaluating the Impact of School Nutrition Programs: Final Report," by Jayanta Bhattacharya, Janet Currie, and Steven J. Haider (E-FAN EFAN04008, July 2004, .pdf format, 54p.).


This study develops estimates of the efficacy of school nutrition programs in improving a broad range of dietary outcomes by comparing the nutritional status of students and their families during the school year with the status when school is out. The study finds evidence that children who have a School Breakfast Program (SBP) available consume a better overall diet, consume a lower percentage of calories from fat, are less likely to have a low intake of magnesium, and are less likely to have low serum levels of vitamin C and folate. For every outcome examined, SBP availability either promotes better outcomes or at the least does not promote worse outcomes. The results of this study suggest that the availability of an SBP has beneficial effects for children. This report describes the study's broad evaluation of the SBP and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The study used the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) -- a nationally representative data set that contains detailed information on food consumption, a complete clinical exam, and a laboratory report for respondents.

United Nations Children's Fund Reports:

A. "Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action (UNICEF, UNAIDS, USAID, July 2004, .pdf format, 42p.). "Millions of children are growing up without parents. Millions more are in households with family members sick or dying from AIDS; children in sub-Saharan African have been hardest hit. Children on the Brink 2004 presents the latest statistics on historical, current and projected numbers of children under 18 who have been orphaned by AIDS and other causes. This edition of the biennial report underscores the changing needs of this vulnerable group as they progress through adolescence and calls for the urgent development and expansion of family and community support."

Click on "PDF" for full text.

B. "Facing the Future Together: Report of the Secretary-General's Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa" (UN, Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, UNAIDS, July 2004, .pdf format, 26p.). "The great majority of young people aged 15-24 living with AIDS in Southern Africa are female. This report documents the realities of life for the thousands of women and girls living there who struggle to keep their families together and care for the sick as the pandemic continues to devastate their lives and economies. It calls for an end to the pervasive gender inequality that is key to propelling the spread of HIV among women. The report presents valuable empirical data on the scale and character of the pandemic in the nine countries in Southern Africa with the highest HIV prevalence rates, identifying six areas where urgent intervention is needed and calling for a shift in how women are perceived and treated."

Click on "PDF" for full text.

World Health Organization Report, Photo Essay:

A. "Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating Pregnant Women and Preventing HIV Infection in Infants: Guidelines on Care, Treatment and Support for Women Living with HIV/AIDS and their Children in Resource-Constrained Settings" (2004, .pdf format, 58p.). "These guidelines present recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants in resource-constrained settings. It contains a summary of the scientific rationale and programmatic considerations for these recommendations. By addressing issues of efficacy, safety, drug resistance and feasibility the document is intended to guide the selection of antiretroviral regimens to be included in programmes to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Moreover, it is intended to support and facilitate antiretroviral treatment for pregnant women and women of reproductive age who have indications for treatment. The guidelines may also be useful for health service providers as specific recommendations are provided for the most frequently encountered clinical situations."

WHO News Release: "WHO publishes new guidelines on preventing mother to child transmission of HIV" (Jul. 14, 2004).

B. "Health for the people of Darfur, Sudan" (July 2004). "In the Darfur region of Sudan, an area the size of France, hundreds of thousands of people are displaced and living in makeshift camps. Through a joint effort of UN agencies, non-governmental organizations and government authorities, progress has been made in providing people with more food, clean water, medicines, and improved sanitation. However, much more still needs to be done. Without urgent, intensified assistance, the people are at major risk of deadly disease, including cholera, dysentery and malaria."

News Release: "People of Darfur face high levels of disease and death: prevention is possible if efforts are intensified, coordinated and adequately funded, says head of the World Health Organization" (Jul. 15, 2004).

Population and Health InfoShare Reports:

A. "The Adverse Health and Social Outcomes of Sexual Coercion: Experiences of Young Women in Developing Countries," by Deepika Ganju, William Finger, Shireen Jejeebhoy, Vijaya Nidadavoluand, K.G. Santhya, Iqbal Shah, ShyamThapa, and Ina Warriner (Population Council, June 2004, .pdf format, 4p., via Population and Health InfoShare).

B. "Sexual coercion: Young men's experiences as victims and perpetrators," by Deepika Ganju, William Finger, Shireen Jejeebhoy, Vijaya Nidadavoluand, K.G. Santhya, Iqbal Shah, ShyamThapa, and Ina Warriner (Population Council, June 2004, .pdf format, 4p., via Population and Health InfoShare).

C. "Forced sexual relations among married young women in developing countries," by Deepika Ganju, William Finger, Shireen Jejeebhoy, Vijaya Nidadavoluand, K.G. Santhya, Iqbal Shah, ShyamThapa, and Ina Warriner (Population Council, July 2004, .pdf format, 4p., via Population and Health InfoShare).

D. "Nutrition and HIV/AIDS: Evidence, Gaps, and Priority Actions," by Ellen Piwoz (Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA) Project, May 2004, .pdf format, 6p., via Population and Health InfoShare).

E. "Issues in Post-abortion Care: Scaling-Up Services in Francophone Africa" (Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA) Project, June 2004, .pdf format, 78p.).

For all the articles above, click on "Download document" or submit your email address for full text.

Urban Institute Report: "A Demographic Profile of New Jersey's Gay and Lesbian Families," by Gary Gates and Jason Ost (July 2004, .pdf format, 4p.).

_Journal of the American Medical Association_ Special HIV/AIDS Theme Issue. _JAMA_'s Vol. 292, No. 2, Jul. 14, 2004 issue is a special theme issue devoted to HIV/AIDS. Abstracts are available to the public. Full text is available to institutional or individual subscribers. Check your library for availability.

Medscape Article: Note: Medscape requires free registration before providing articles: "Current Cancer Mortality: What the Numbers Mean," by Karen Antman (ACP Medicine via Medscape, July 2004).

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Communication Programs Compendium: Info Health Pop. Reporter (Vol. 4, No. 29, Jul. 19, 2004). "The Johns Hopkins University Population Information Program delivers the reproductive health and family planning news you need. Each week our research staff prepares an electronic magazine loaded with links to key news stories, reports, and related developments around the globe."

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National Bureau of Economic Research:

A. "Targeted Remedial Education for Under-Performing Teenagers: Costs and Benefits," by Victor Lavy and Analia Schlosser (w10575, June 2004, .pdf format, 45p.).


There is renewed interest in ways to enhance secondary education, especially among disadvantaged students. This study evaluates the short-term effects of a remedial-education program that provided additional instruction to under-performing high-school students in Israel. The program targeted 10th twelfth graders who needed additional help to pass the matriculation exams. Using a comparison group of schools that enrolled in the program later and implementing a differences-in-differences estimation strategy, we found that the program raised the school mean matriculation rate by 3.3 percentage points. This gain reflects mainly an effect on targeted participants and the absence of externalities on their untreated peers. The program was found to be less cost-effective than two alternative interventions based on incentives for teachers and students.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address at the bottom of the page for full text.

B. "A New Look at Racial Profiling: Evidence from the Boston Police," by Kate L. Antonovics and Brian G. Knight (w10634, July 2004, .pdf format, 41p.).


This paper provides new evidence on the role of preference-based versus statistical discrimination in racial profiling using a unique data set that includes the race of both the driver and the officer. We first generalize the model presented in Knowles, Persico and Todd (2001) and show that the fundamental insight that allows them to distinguish between statistical discrimination and preference-based discrimination depends on the specialized shapes of the best response functions in their model. Thus, the test that they employ is not robust to a range of alternative modeling assumptions. However, we also show that if statistical discrimination alone explains differences in the rate at which the vehicles of drivers of different races are searched, then search decisions should be independent of officer race. We then test this prediction using data from the Boston Police Department. Consistent with preference-based discrimination, our baseline results demonstrate that officers are more likely to conduct a search if the race of the officer differs from the race of the driver. We then investigate and rule out two alternative explanations for our findings: race-based informational asymmetries between officers and the assignment of officers to neighborhoods.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address at the bottom of the page for full text.

Washington University at St. Louis Economics Working Paper Archive:"Dragon Children: Identifying the Causal Effect of the First Child on Female Labor Supply with the Chinese Lunar Calendar," by James P. Vere (University of Hong Kong) (July 2004, .pdf format, 35p.).


Instrumental variables (IV) estimates of the effect of fertility on female labor supply have only been able to identify the causal effect of second and higher-parity children. This study uses exogenous variation in fertility caused by the Chinese lunar calendar to identify the effect of the first child. Additionally, weighting formulas are presented to interpret IV estimates as weighted average treatment effects in the case of multiple endogenous variables, which are useful when children vary in intensity by both number and age. The effect of the first child is found to be much greater than that of other children.

2004 United Kingdom Stata User's Group: 12 of the 19 working papers from the 2004 UK Stata User's group 2004 meetings are available from Research Papers in Economics (RePEc).

Cambridge University Working Papers in Economics: "Religion and Fertility in India: The role of son preference and daughter aversion," by Vani Borooah and Sriya Iyer (Working Paper 0436, July 2004, .pdf format, 40p.).


This paper brings together the notion of "son preference" and the complementary concept of "daughter aversion" to provide an explanation for larger Muslim, relative to Hindu, families in India. Just as sons bring"benefits" to their parents, daughters impose "costs"and complementing a desire to have sons is a desire not to have daughters. Consequently, the desire for sons increases family size while the fear of daughters limits it. A formal model, in which these two countervailing forces act so as to determine equilibrium family size and composition, is developed. Qualitative evidence about Hindus and Muslims in their attitudes towards sons and daughters is presented; as are quantitative results from a Poisson regression model estimated on data for 10,548 women who had attained their equilibrium family size. The analysis concludes that higher Muslim fertility compared to Hindus may in reality reflect significantly lower levels of daughter aversion among this community.

Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) [University of Bonn, Germany]:"Living Conditions of Children and Parental Well-Being -- Evidence from German Data on Life Satisfaction," by Johannes Schwarze (Discussion Paper 1200, July 2004, .pdf format, 18p.).


The question that this paper addresses is whether or not parents are altruistic towards their children. A new approach will be introduced, where the life satisfaction data of parents will be regressed onto the living conditions of their children who now live independently. After controlling for unobserved household characteristics, no positive effect of children's actual household income on parents satisfaction can be found. However, children's health and education have a positive impact on parental well-being. Both can be interpreted as an approximation of children's lifetime incomes. We also regress parental life satisfaction on the predicted life satisfaction of their children. A significant positive effect can be found, which can be interpreted as weak evidence for parental altruism. The paper uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP).

Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) [Milano, Italy]: "Cities and Cultures," by Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano and Giovanni Peri (Working Paper 92.04, May 2004, .pdf format, 38p.).


We investigate the existence of wage premium due to cultural diversity across US cities. Using census data from 1970 to 1990, we find that at the urban level richer diversity is systematically associated with higher average nominal wages for white US-born males. We measure cultural diversity in a city using the variety of languages spoken by city-residents. While the positive correlation between wages and diversity survives a battery of robustness checks, it seems to be larger once foreign cultures have been assimilated. Finally, instrumental variable estimation hints at causation going from diversity to wages. Comparing real and nominal wages across cities, we interpret these results as evidence that diversity enhances productivity.

Click on "download" at the bottom of the page for full text.

Melbourne [Australia] Institute: "Gender and Work Hours Transitions in Australia: Drop Ceilings and Trap-Door Floors," by Robert Drago, David Black and Mark Wooden (Working Paper 11/2004, July 2004, .pdf format, 33p.).


We introduce the ideas of "drop ceilings", that full-time employees who switch to reduced hours thereafter face an hours ceiling such that a return to full-time employment is difficult, and of "trap-door floors", that full-time employees may be denied the opportunity to reduce their hours and instead face a choice between full-time employment and quitting the job. These ideas derive from the potential existence of norms around the ideal worker and motherhood. Relevant hypotheses are developed and tested using information on usual and preferred working time from the first two waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. The key findings are that women face drop ceilings significantly more often than men; that professionals and managers confront trap-door floors significantly more often than employees in other occupations; and that trap-door floor effects are generally stronger than drop ceiling effects in the data.

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JOURNAL TABLES OF CONTENTS (check your library for availability):

INGENTA Tables of Contents: INGENTA provides fee based document delivery services for selected journals.

A. Point your browser to:

B. click on "browse by publication"
C. Click the "fax/ariel" radio button, type the Journal Name in the "by words in the title" search box and click "search".
D. View the table of contents for the issue noted.

International Labour Review (Vol. 142, No. 4, October 2004). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

Latin American Research Review (Vol. 39, No. 2, 2004). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library and the EBSCO Host Academic Search Elite Database. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

Other Journals:

American Journal of Epidemiology (Vol. 160, No. 3, Aug. 1, 2004).

European Journal of Public Health (Vol. 14, No. 3, September 2004). Nte: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library and the EBSCO Host Academic Search Elite Database. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

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National Institutes of Health:

A. "Understanding Mechanisms of Health Risk Behavior Change in Children and Adolescents" (PA-04-121, Jul. 6, 2004). For more information see:

B. "Supplements to Promote Reentry Into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers" (PA-04-126, Jul. 9, 2004). For more information see:

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National Center for Education Statistics/Census Bureau: "School District Demographics": "This new NCES application allows users to view summary state and national tables of school district data from the 2000 School District Special Tabulation (STP2). The system is made up of a set of cross tabulations permitting users to specify pre-selected row topics and column topics. Column topics provide a unique distribution of school district data grouped by the indicated characteristics (e.g., percent minority, school district size, etc.). The enrollment column topic is essentially a rearrangement of the state and U.S. data provided in the Census 2000 data link."

Census Bureau:

A. "Population Estimates for Puerto Rico Municipios, 2003" (July 2004, Microsoft Excel, .pdf, and comma separated value [.csv] formats). Estimates are available for 2000-2003.

Click on "2002-2003 Population Estimates by Municipio" under "choose a popular table".

B. "Census of Population and Housing: 1870 Census". The Bureau has released "A compendium of the Ninth Census (June 1, 1870) compiled pursuant to a concurrent resolution of Congress" in electronic format (15 .pdf files, legibility may be an issue).

Click on "PDF" at the bottom of the page.

National Longitudinal Study: The Bureau of Labor Statistics, via the Center for Human Resource Research (CHRR) at the Ohio State University, has released the NLSY79 Child/Young Adult 1979-2002 Data Release R11.0 (1979-2002) (DCYA-R11-1). The data can be downloaded free of charge. There is a link at the site to NLS Database Investigator software, the extraction system used with the data.

Direct link to data:

US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service: "State Fact Sheets" (HTML, .pdf, and Microsoft Access format). " State fact sheets provide information on population, employment, income, farm characteristics, and farm financial indicators for each state in the United States. This information was last updated on July 16, 2004." Sources include US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Census Bureau, USDA Economic Research Service, and USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (Census of Agriculture).

Click on map or list of states for link to data.

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Websites of Interest:

National Institutes of Health: "NHGRI (National Human Genome Research Institute) Policy and Legislation Database." "The free, searchable database currently focuses on the following subject areas: genetic testing and counseling; insurance and employment discrimination, newborn screening; privacy of genetic information and confidentiality; informed consent; and commercialization and patenting. ... The resource features a convenient, interactive map of the United States that enables users to view state legislation and laws for any of the 50 states and the District of Columbia by simply clicking on that jurisdiction. Users also can search the database by keyword, content type, topic and/or source, and can also sort the information by date or citation." The database is browsable and searchable. The database is linked to from a NIH news release: "New Database Focuses on Genetic Policy and Laws: NHGRI Launches Free Web-based Resource For Finding Federal, State Laws Related to Genetic Issues" (Jul. 19, 2004).

Click on "" in the second paragraph of the news release for link to database.

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Jack Solock
Data Librarian--Center for Demography and Ecology
4470 Social Science
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706