Current Demographic Research Report #47, August 30, 2004.

Note: Due to the Labor Day holiday there will be no CDERR Report on September 6, 2004. Instead, the report will be released on September 7, 2004.

CDERR (Current Demographic Research Reports) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. This report will contain selected listings of new: reports, articles, bibliographies, working papers, tables of contents, conferences, data, and websites. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


Index to this issue:


Census Bureau Report, News Release
Centers for Disease Control Periodicals
National Center for Health Statistics Report
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Report
National Center for Education Statistics Report
BLS News Release, Employment Dynamics Charts, Periodicals
World Health Organization News Release, Report
Pan American Health Organization Periodical
International Monetary Fund Periodical
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Report
CIHI Report
Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics Monograph
_Demographic Research_ Articles
Carolina Population Center MEASURE Report
Kaiser Health Poll Report
Urban Institute Reports
Population Reference Bureau Articles
Earth Policy Institute Update
Center For Immigration Studies Report
Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University News Release
Info Health Pop Reporter
NLS Bibliography Updates


University of Michigan Population Studies Center
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research [Rostock, Germany]
University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty
State University of New York at Buffalo Department of Economics
National Bureau of Economic Research
World Bank Policy Research Working Papers
UN University World Institute for Development Economics Research
IZA [University of Bonn, Germany]
Tinbergen Institute [Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands]
Stockholm [Sweden] University Department of Economics


Other Journals


National Institutes of Health


Minnesota Population Center


US House Ways and Means Committee Compendium


Census Bureau
Wisconsin Longitudinal Study
National Longitudinal Survey
IPUMS Revision
Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Population Reference Bureau
US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service


PAHO Publishing Tutorial



Census Bureau Report, News Release:

A. "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2003," by Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Robert J. Mills (Current Population Reports Consumer Income, P60-226, August 2004, .pdf format, 69p.). The report is linked to from a Census Bureau news release: "Income Stable, Poverty Up, Numbers of Americans With and Without Health Insurance Rise, Census Bureau Reports" (CB04-144, Aug. 26, 2004). "The report's data were compiled from information collected in the 2004 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS)."

B. "U.S. Census Bureau Announces Policy Regarding Sensitive Data" (CB04-145, Aug. 30, 2004).

Centers for Disease Control Periodicals:

A. _Emerging Infectious Diseases_ (Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2004, HTML and .pdf format).

Note: This is a temporary address. When the next _EID_ is released, this one, along with all others, will be available at:

B. _MMWR_: This week's issue of _Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report_ (Vol. 53, No. 33, Aug. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format), begins a series of reports on "Health Disparities Experienced by Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations."

Note: This is a temporary address. See the "Current Volume" and/or "Past Volume" links at the side of the page to locate this item in the future.

C. _MMWR Surveillance Summaries_: "REACH (Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health) 2010 Surveillance for Health Status in Minority Communities --- United States, 2001--2002," by Youlian Liao, Pattie Tucker, Catherine A. Okoro, Wayne H. Giles, Ali H. Mokdad, and Virginia Bales Harris (Vol. 53, SS06, Aug. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1-36).

Note: This is a temporary address. See the "Current Volume" and/or "Past Volume" links at the side of the page to locate this item in the future.

National Center for Health Statistics Report: "National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2002 Summary," by David A. Woodwell and Donald K. Cherry (Advance Data From Vital and Health Statistics No. 346, August 2004, .pdf format, 43p.). The report is linked to from a NCHS Fact Sheet: "New Study Shows Critical Role for Primary Care Specialists: Most Often the Source of Preventive Care" (Aug. 26, 2004).

Click on "View/download PDF" for link to full text.

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Report: "Health Care in Urban and Rural Areas, Combined Years 1998-2000," by Sharon L. Larson, Steven R. Machlin, Alice Nixon, and Marc Zodet (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, MEPS Chartbook #13, July 2004, HTML and .pdf format, 39p.). "This chartbook examines the differences in health care access, use, and expenses between urban and rural areas. Counties are classified along the urban-rural continuum according to whether they are metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and, if not, their proximity to an MSA. An MSA is a large population nucleus with a high degree of economic and social interaction. The categories along the continuum are metro (counties in an MSA), near-metro, near-rural, and rural. The last category includes only the most rural areas in the Nation, home to about 3.2 million Americans."

National Center for Education Statistics Report: "Federal Support for Education: Fiscal Years 1980 to 2003," by William C. Sonnenberg (NCES 2004026, August 2004, .pdf format, 45p.).


This report provides a comprehensive picture of total federal financial support for education from fiscal year 1980 through fiscal year 2003. A summary of dollar amounts spent on education programs in the U.S. Department of Education and other government agencies is provided.

Bureau of Labor Statistics News Release, Employment Dynamics Charts, Periodicals:

A. "Number of Jobs, Labor Market Experience, and Earnings Growth: Results>From A Longitudinal Survey" (Aug. 25, 2004, ASCII text and .pdf format, 10p.). Source for this news release is the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979.

B. "Charts of gross job losses and gross job gains, by industry sector, seasonally adjusted, Sep. 1992 - Dec. 2003" (Aug. 24, 2004).

C. _Monthly Labor Review_ (Vol. 127, No. 8, August 2004, .pdf format).

Note: This is a temporary address. When the next _MLR_ is released, this one, along with all others back to 1985, will be available at:

D. "Compensation and Working Conditions Online." The latest article,"Comparing Current and Former Industry and Occupation ECEC Series," is dated Aug. 25, 2004.

World Health Organization News Release, Report:

A. "New polio cases confirmed in Guinea, Mali and the Sudan" (Aug. 24, 2004).

B. "Meeting the MDG Drinking-Water and Sanitation Target: A Mid-Term Assessment Progress," (WHO/UNICEF [United Nations Children's Fund] Joint Monitoring Programme on Water Supply and Sanitation [JMP]), August 2004, .pdf format, 33p.).

Report and press release (.pdf format)

Press release (HTML format):

Pan American Health Organization Periodical: _Epidemiological Bulletin_ (Vol. 25, No. 1, March 2004, HTML and .pdf format).

International Monetary Fund Periodical: _Finance & Development_ (Vol. 41, No. 3, September 2004, .pdf format).

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Report: "Rheumatic heart disease: all but forgotten in Australia except among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples" (AIHW Bulletin 16, August 2004, .pdf format, 19p.). "This bulletin describes the population patterns of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Australia today using data obtained from regional registers and national databases."

Canadian Institute for Health Information/Institut Canadien d'Information Sur la Sante Report: "Obesity in Canada: A Population Health Perspective," by Kim D. Raine (August 2004, .pdf format, 81p.). "Rising rates of obesity in Canada over the past 20 years have significant public health implications. Applying a population health lens to the problem of obesity may provide insight into potential means of addressing obesity and its determinants through a wide variety of policy options. The paper synthesizes the current state of knowledge related to: 1) the nature and extent of the problem of obesity, 2) the impact of obesity as a case for prevention and control, 3) a population health perspective on the determinants of obesity, and 4) effectiveness of strategies for addressing obesity and its determinants. The paper also identifies priorities for future policy-relevant research and presents the author's options for promising interventions for reducing population obesity levels."



Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics Monograph: _The Dutch Virtual Census of 2001: Analysis and Methodology_," edited by Eric Schulte Nordholt, Marijke Hartgers, and Rita Gircour (Statistics Netherlands, 2004, .pdf format, 276p.). "In the Netherlands, individual persons are no longer approached for the census. The Virtual Census is based on combined information from sources available to Statistics Netherlands: registers which the bureau uses to make statistics and its own surveys... _The Dutch Virtual Census of 2001, Analysis and Methodology_ discusses differences in size and composition between households, economic activity of households, individual activity status by region, age, education level and branch of economic activity. There are separate chapters on the economic activities of young people and people of retirement age. The economic activities, levels of education and occupation of foreigners from various countries of origin are compared with each other and with the native Dutch population. Regional aspects are also examined, including commuting. Lastly, the method of the Virtual Census is also described. The publication may concern anyone interested in the analysis of census results as well as those interested in the applied methodology."

_Demographic Research_ Articles: Note: _DR_ is "a free, expedited, peer-reviewed journal of the population sciences published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research."

A. "Qualitative data in demography: The sound of silence and other problems," by Sara Randall and Todd Koppenhaver (Vol. 11, Article 3, August 2004, .pdf format, p. 57-94).


Qualitative methods and insights from other disciplines are increasingly integrated into demography's traditionally quantitative toolkit. Whereas this is not problematic for multi-disciplinary research projects difficulties may arise when quantitatively trained demographers diversify to use less familiar data collection tools. We review the scale of this recent trend and the choice of qualitative methods typically employed by demographic researchers. Using insights from a comparative qualitative study undertaken in Zimbabwe and Senegal, we discuss some problems inherent in qualitative data collection and analysis and propose ways in which such data should and should not be used. Focusing in particular on semi-structured in-depth interviews, we discuss issues of representativity, investigate respondents' silence on specific topics, and the role of interviewer characteristics in influencing the interview subject matter.

B. "Demographic trends in Sweden: An update of childbearing and nuptiality up to 2002," by Gunnar Andersson (Vol. 11, Article 4, August 2004, .pdf format, p. 95-110, with data in Microsoft Excel format).

In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

Click on "Enter".

Carolina Population Center MEASURE (Monitoring and Evaluation to ASsess and Use REsults) Evaluation Report: "AIDS in Africa During the Nineties: Malawi, a Review and Analysis of Surveys" (2004, .pdf format, 62p.).

Kaiser Health Poll Report: Kaiser Family Foundation's latest Health Poll Report (July/August 2004) topic is "The Public, Managed Care, and Consumer Protections." "This Kaiser Health Poll Report Featured Topic is based on current and historical public opinion data from the Kaiser Family Foundation and other polling organizations."

Urban Institute Report: "Benefit-Cost Analysis of Supermax Prisons," by Sarah Lawrence, Daniel P. Mears (August 2004, .pdf format, 39p.).

Population Reference Bureau Articles:

A. "Minorities Overrepresented Among America's 'Disconnected' Youth," by Charles Dervarics (August 2004).

B. "Latinos and the Changing Face of America," by Rogelio Saenz (Population Reference Bureau and the Russell Sage Foundation, 2004).

C. "African Americans and the Color Line," by Michael A. Stoll (Population Reference Bureau and the Russell Sage Foundation, 2004).

D. "Injecting Drug Use Fueling Spread of HIV in China," by Drew Thompson (August 2004).

Earth Policy Institute Update: "Coal Takes a Heavy Toll: Some 25,100 U.S. Deaths from Coal Use Largely Preventable," by Janet Larsen (Update 2004-11, Aug. 24, 2004). Note: There is a link to relevant data tables at the bottom of the update.

Center For Immigration Studies Report: "The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget," by Steven A. Camarota (August 2004, HTML and .pdf format, 48p.).

More information on CIS:

Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University [Washington, D.C.] News Release: "Mind the Gap: Responding to International Funding Crisis in Family Planning" (Aug. 18, 2004, .pdf format, 7p., via Population and Health InfoShare).

Click on "Download document" for full text.

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Communication Programs Compendium: Info Health Pop. Reporter (Vol. 4, No. 35, August 30, 2004). "The Johns Hopkins University Population Information Program delivers the reproductive health and family planning news you need. Each week our research staff prepares an electronic magazine loaded with links to key news stories, reports, and related developments around the globe."

NLS (National Longitudinal Survey) Bibliography Updates: Note: These citations, along with all of the NLS bibliography, can be found at:

Note: Where available, direct links to full text have been provided. These references represent updated citations from Aug. 23 - Aug. 27, 2004.

Understanding the Crime Choice - The Role of Market Wages
Presented: Durham, NC, Special Edition 2003 Undergraduate Research
Symposium, August 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4631
Publisher: Duke University

Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development
Working Paper No. 10691, National Bureau of Economic Research, August
2004. Also,
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
ID Number: 4635
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research -- NBER

Better Child Support Enforcement: Can It Reduce Teenage Premarital Childbearing?
Journal of Family Issues 25,5 (July 2004): 634-658. Also:
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4636
Publisher: Sage Publications

Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families
Social Work 49,3 (July2004): 395-406. Also:
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4637
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)

Maternity Leave and the Employment of New Mothers in the United States
Journal of Population Economics 17,2 (2004): 331-350. Also:
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
ID Number: 4638
Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Peer Effects on Substance Use Among American Teenagers
Journal of Population Economics 17,2 (2004): 351-368. Also:
Cohort(s): NLSY97
ID Number: 4639
Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Substance Use Associated with Unintended Pregnancy Outcomes in the
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 30,2 (May 2004): 369-384
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4640
Publisher: Marcel Dekker

Gender Differences in the Marriage and Cohabitation Income Premium
Demography 41,2 (May 2004): 263-275. Also:
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4641
Publisher: Population Association of America

Food Stamp Program Linked to Overweight in Young Children
Drug Week 23 April 2004: pp. 88-98
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
ID Number: 4642
Publisher: NewsRx

Is Obesity as Dangerous to Your Wealth as to Your Health?
Research on Aging 26,1 (January 2004): 130-152
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4643
Publisher: Sage Publications

Education, Work, and Crime: A Human Capital Approach
International Economic Review 45,3 (August 2004): 811-844. Also:
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4644
Publisher: U.S. International Trade Commission

How Robust Is the Evidence on the Effects of College Quality? Evidence from Matching
Journal of Econometrics 121,1-2 (July/August 2004): 99-125. Also:
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4645
Publisher: Elsevier Science

Earnings Growth Among Young Less-Educated Business Owners.
Industrial Relations 43,3 (July 2004): 634-660. Also:
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4646
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc

How Do Firing Costs Affect Worker Flows in a World with Adverse Selection?
Journal of Labor Economics 22,3 (July 2004): 553-585. Also:
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4647
Publisher: University of Chicago Press

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University of Michigan Population Studies Center:

A. "Attitudes on Sex and Marital Sexual Behavior: Stability, Change, and Levels in North Vietnam," by Sharon Ghuman (PSC Research Report 04-562, August 2004, .pdf format, 24p.).


We examine the acceptance of sexual relations outside marriage and levels of marital sexual activity using data on married individuals from Hai Duong province collected in 2001. There is a growing acceptance of intimate behavior without marital commitment and sex with a future spouse in urban areas among individuals who married after the renovation in the late 1980's. Schooling, urban residence and marrying after the renovation have stronger associations with less conservative attitudes for men than women. Even among younger and better-educated individuals, acceptance of premarital and extramarital sex remains below the majority. Premarital sex is more common among men than women, and reported levels are far lower than in other parts of Asia, or Africa and Latin America. The reported level of sexual activity within marriage is similar to that observed in other countries. The incidence of sex declines with age and men are more likely to report sex with their spouse than women at all ages. We consider the methodological implications of these gender differences in sexual activity.

B. "Gender and Family Support for Older Adults in Bangladesh," by Sharon Ghuman and Mary Beth Ofstedal (PSC Research Report 04-563, August 2004, .pdf format, 18p.).


We examine the nature of economic and social support from children and siblings for a sample of individuals age 50 and above collected in Matlab, Bangladesh. We consider co-residence, exchanges of money, goods or services, childcare, and social visits, and examine whether the gender of the support recipient and the support provider conditions the patterns of exchanges. One half to two thirds of older adults live with a married child or receive assistance from a non-co-resident child. Siblings are less likely to provide assistance and, on average, give lower amounts than children. Sons are considerably more likely than daughters to live with or adjacent to parents, or provide economic aid. But daughters are not uninvolved in exchanges with parents, and channel resources to mothers more than fathers. There is no evidence that older women are at a disadvantage in terms of co-residence, receipt of support from children or siblings, or frequent contact with children compared to men. But they are less likely to seek contact with the larger community. Older persons who do not live with children have regular contact with and receive assistance from them. Of the few who are childless, most live with family members or live alone but receive regular visits from children or relatives. We also compare the findings from Bangladesh with other East and Southeast Asian contexts.

For either report, click on the PDF icon to the upper right of the abstract for link to full text.

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research [Rostock, Germany]: "The effects of socio-cultural and labor market conditions on marital separation during the early democratic period in Spain," by Rene Houle (WP-2004-023, August 2004, .pdf format, 36p.).


In this paper, we examine the socio-cultural conditions and labour market participation correlates of marital separation in transition Spain (1977-90). In the country, marital disruption is highly selective. Men and women who have completed secondary education at least and women who participate in the labour market are more prone to be involved in marital separation than other groups. We also observed a differential effect by sex of contextual covariates on divorce risks. For women, a strong positive association between proportion of the labour force in the service sector in provinces and marital disruption has been found. For men, the socio-cultural context is stronger than the economic opportunity effect. The other important result is the presence of a "U" shape curve linking divorce with socio-economic characteristics. Divorce risks tend to be higher at the opposite ends of the socio-economic structure, a fact that is more pronounced for women than men.

University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty: "Medicaid at Birth, WIC Take-Up, and Children's Outcomes," by Marianne Bitler and Janet Currie (Discussion Paper DP-1286-04, August 2004, .pdf format, 30p.).


The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides food and nutritional advice to low-income women, and infants and children, who are income eligible and are nutritionally at risk. The effects of WIC on infants have been extensively studied, but children 1 to 4 are the most rapidly growing part of the WIC caseload, and little information is available about the effects of WIC on this group. Using data from the 1996 and 2001 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), we show that Medicaid policies that affected take-up among infants had long-term effects on participation in the WIC program. By contrast, increases in the generosity of Medicaid toward older children increased WIC eligibility without having much impact on participation. Hence increases in WIC participation among children have not been driven by higher-income families made eligible as a result of State Children's Health Insurance Program, as some critics have argued. Our most striking finding is that WIC participation at age 4 has large and significant effects on the probability that a child is at risk of being overweight (i.e., has BMI greater than the 85th percentile for sex and age). This suggests that either the nutrition education or the actual provision of healthy food is helping to prevent obesity among young children. This is an important measure of the success of the WIC program because of the importance of obesity as a public health threat, and because of the importance of establishing healthy eating habits early in life.

State University of New York at Buffalo Department of Economics via Economics Working Paper Archive (Washington University at St. Louis): "Ethnic Segregation and Ghettos," by Alex Anas (August 2004, .pdf format, 24p.).


Throughout history cities have contained separate areas where ethnic groups are concentrated. In the U.S. many older cities in the Northeast and Midwest contain large African-American ghettos. We discuss the causes and consequences of ethnic and racial segregation. We identify differences between voluntary and involuntary ghettos and we understand them using agglomeration economies, positive and negative externalities, bid rent theory, land and labor markets. We show that sharply segregated urban land use patterns can be socially efficient or inefficient depending on the nature of preferences and the externalities. Exclusionary policies often capture the economic efficiency. We observe a bewildering variety of political and public policy responses to segregation in Brazil, Cyprus, Europe, India, Israel, South Africa and the United States.

National Bureau of Economic Research:

A. "Neighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being," by Erzo F.P. Luttmer (w10667, August 2004, .pdf format, 49p.).


This paper investigates whether individuals feel worse off when others around them earn more. In other words, do people care about relative position and does lagging behind the Joneses' diminish well-being? To answer this question, I match individual-level panel data containing a number of indicators of well-being to information about local average earnings. I find that, controlling for an individual's own income, higher earnings of neighbors are associated with lower levels of self-reported happiness. The data's panel nature and rich set of measures of well-being and behavior indicate that this association is not driven by selection or by changes in the way people define happiness. There is suggestive evidence that the negative effect of increases in neighbors' earnings on own well-being is most likely caused by interpersonal preferences people having utility functions that depend on relative consumption in addition to absolute consumption.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

B. "Welfare Migration: Is the Net Fiscal Burden a Good Measure of Its Economic Impact on the Welfare of the Native Born Population?" by Assaf Razin and Efraim Sadka (w10682, August 2004, .pdf format, 9p.).


Migration of young workers (as distinct from retirees), even when driven in by the generosity of the welfare state, slows down the trend of increasing dependency ratio. But, even though low-skill migration improves the dependency ratio, it nevertheless burdens the welfare state. Recent studies by Smith and Edmonston (1977), and Sinn et al (2003) comprehensively estimate the fiscal burden that low-skill migration imposes on the fiscal system. However an important message of this paper is that in an infinite-horizon set-up, one cannot fully grasp the implications of migration for the welfare state, just by looking at the net fiscal burden that migrants impose on the fiscal system. In an infinite-horizon, overlapping generations economy, this net burden, could change to net gain to the native born population.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

C. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development," by Christopher J. Ruhm (w10691, August 2004, .pdf format, 55p.).


This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the outcomes of 10 and 11 year olds after controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family background characteristics. The results suggest that the mother's labor supply has deleterious effects on cognitive development, obesity and possibly risky behaviors such as smoking or drinking, while reducing behavior problems. These negative consequences are quite small for the average child, however, and usually restricted to relatively long maternal work hours. Less intensive employment is often associated with favorable outcomes and labor supply after the first three years typically has little effect. By contrast, large adverse consequences are frequently obtained for advantaged' adolescents, with negative impacts predicted even for limited amounts of maternal labor supply and for work during the child's fourth through ninth year.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

D. "Sex Differences in Morbidity and Mortality," by Anne C. Case and Christina Paxson (w10653, July 2004, .pdf format, 45p.).


Women have worse self-rated health and more hospitalization episodes than men from early adolescence to late middle age, but are less likely to die at each age. We use 14 years of data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey to examine this paradox. Our results indicate that the difference in self-assessed health between women and men can be entirely explained by differences in the distribution of the chronic conditions they face. Although on average women have worse self-rated health than men, women and men with the same chronic conditions have the same self-rated health. The results for hospital episodes are somewhat different. While the effect of poor health on hospital episodes is the same for men and women, men with respiratory cancer, cardiovascular disease, and bronchitis are more likely to experience hospital episodes than women who suffer from the same chronic conditions, implying that men may experience more severe forms of these conditions. The same is true for mortality. Although the effects of many chronic conditions on the probability of death are the same for women and men, men who report having cardiovascular disease and certain lung disorders are significantly more likely to die than women with these conditions. While some of the gender difference in mortality can be explained by differences in the distribution of chronic conditions, an equally large share can be attributed to the larger adverse effects of these conditions on male mortality. Is smoking the smoking gun? Conditions for which we find excess male hospitalizations and mortality are generally smoking-related.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

World Bank Policy Research Working Papers: "Skilled Migration: The Perspective of Developing Countries," by Frederic Docquier and Hillel Rapoport (Working Paper 3382, August 2004, .pdf format, 38p.).


Docquier and Rapoport focus on the consequences of skilled migration for developing countries. They first present new evidence on the magnitude of migration of skilled workers at the international level and then discuss its direct and indirect effects on human capital formation in developing countries in a unified stylized model. Finally they turn to policy implications, with emphasis on migration and education policy in a context of globalized labor markets.

Click on "Adobe Acrobat" for full text.

United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research: "Assessing Poverty and Inequality at a Detailed Regional Level: New Advances in Spatial Microsimulation," by Ann Harding, Rachel Lloyd, Anthea Bill, and Anthony King (Research Paper No. 2004/26, April 2004, .pdf format, 17p.).

IZA (Institute for the Study of Labor) [University of Bonn, Germany]:

A. "Shot Across the Bow, Stigma or Selection? The Effect of Repeating a Class on Educational Attainment," by Michael Fertig (Discussion Paper 1266, August 2004, .pdf format, 13p.).


The German practice of compelling weak students to repeat a class has come under heavy criticism recently. Many observers fear that this practice is, at best, useless or even counterproductive. However, little is known so far on the consequences of having to repeat a class, as compared to be confronted with new course material in the next class. This paper, therefore, aims at generating empirical evidence on the effect of class repetition on individual educational attainment. Since an experimental study is precluded, we utilize an instrumental variable approach to control for unobserved heterogeneity between respondents. Our estimation results suggest that there exists a negative association between repeating a class and educational attainment. However, taking unobserved heterogeneity into account yields a statistically significant and quantitatively substantial positive effect of class repetition on educational outcomes.

B. "The World Distribution of Income and Income Inequality," by Almas Heshmati (Discussion Paper 1267, August 2004, .pdf format, 38p.).


This review covers a range of measures and methods frequently employed in empirical analysis of global income inequality and global income distribution. Different determinant factors along with quantification of their impacts and empirical results from different case studies are presented. These results are further contrasted to those obtained based on the World Income Inequality Database. A number of issues crucial to the studies of global income inequality are addressed. These are the concepts, measurement and decomposition of inequality, the world distribution of income and inequality measured at different levels of aggregation: global, international and intra-national. We analyse income at each of the three levels, discuss the benefit and limitations of each approach and present empirical results found in the literature and compare it with those based on the World Income Inequality Database. Research on the world income inequality supports increased awareness of the problem, its measurement and quantification, identification of causal factors and of policy measures to affect global income inequality.

C. "The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Composition on Children's Education," by Sandra E. Black, Paul Devereux, and Kjell G. Salvanes (Discussion Paper 1269, August 2004, .pdf format, 48p.).


Among the perceived inputs in the "production" of child quality is family size; there is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Our analysis is able to overcome many limitations of the previous literature by using a rich dataset that contains information on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time and allows us to match adult children to their parents and siblings. In addition, we use exogenous variation in family size induced by the birth of twins to isolate causation. Like most previous studies, we find a negative correlation between family size and children's educational attainment. However, when we include indicators for birth order, the effect of family size becomes negligible. This finding is robust to the use of twin births as an instrument for family size. In addition, we find that birth order has a significant and large effect on children's education; children born later in the family obtain less education. These findings suggest the need to revisit economic models of fertility and child "production", focusing not only on differences across families but differences within families as well.

D. "Why Are Fertility and Women's Employment Rates So Low in Italy? Lessons from France and the U.K.," by Daniela Del Boca, Silvia Pasqua, and Chiara Pronzato (Discussion Paper 1274, August 2004, .pdf format, 36p.).


According to the agenda for employment set by the EU in 2000 for the following ten years, the target for female employment was set at 60 per cent for the year 2010. While Northern and most Continental countries have achieved this quantitative target, the Mediterranean countries are lagging behind. Labor market policies should be aimed to encourage women's participation and reduce the cost of working. However the persistence of a negative relationship between participation and fertility in these countries implies that it is important to take fertility into account. We analyze a model of labor supply and fertility, using data from the ECHP (European Community Household Panel) for the period 1994-2000, merged with regional data describing the available labor market opportunities in the households' environment.

Tinbergen Institute [Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands]:

A. "On the Timing of Marriage, Cattle and Weather Shocks," by Hans Hoogeveen, Bas van der Klaauw, and Gijsbert van Lomwel (Discussion Paper 2004-073/3, June 2004, .pdf format, 44p.).


In this paper we focus on the timing of marriages of women, whose marriages are associated with bride wealth payments, which are transfers from (the family of) the groom to the bride's family. Unmarried daughters could therefore be considered assets who, at times of need, can be cashed in. We investigate both theoretically and empirically to what extent the timing of a marriage of a daughter is affected by the economic conditions of the household from which she originates. We distinguish household specific wealth levels and two types of shocks: correlated (weather) shocks and id- iosyncratic (wealth) shocks. We estimate a duration model using a unique panel survey of Zimbabwean smallholder farmers. The estimation results support the hypothesis that the timing of marriage is affected by household characteristics; girls from households that experienced a negative idiosyncratic (wealth) shock are more likely to marry.

Click on "PDF File" at the bottom of the abstract for full text.

B. "Ethnic Concentration and Human Capital Formation," by Thomas de Graaff and Henri L.F. de Groot (Discussion Paper 04-081/3, July 2004, .pdf format, 26p.).


Concentration of immigrants and its associated externalities have become an important topic in contemporary international migration research, both from a methodological as well as an empirical perspective. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to provide an overview of that part of the migration literature that is concerned with the externalities created by the influx of immigrants. Second, it presents a stylized model in which human capital accumulation and ethnic cluster formation are explicitly incorporated. The model shows that lock-in effects can result from heterogeneous human capital and spillover effects on different spatial levels. Extensions of the model are discussed, together with their possible impacts on the spatial variation of the evolution of human capital stocks.

Click on "PDF File" at the bottom of the abstract for full text.

Stockholm [Sweden] University Department of Economics: "The Emigration of Immigrants, Return vs. Onward Migration: Evidence from Sweden," by Lena Nekby (WP 2004-07, 2004, .pdf format, 26p.).


Using data on registered emigration from Sweden from 1991-2000, this study analyzes emigration propensities for natives and immigrants delineating among immigrant emigrants between return and onward migration. Return migration is defined as migration back to source countries and onward migration as emigration to third country destinations. Onward migration constitutes an increasing proportion of emigration from Sweden and is the more common form of emigration among immigrants from Africa and Asia. Results indicate that emigrants in general are positively selected in terms of upper education, a result driven by the positive association between upper education and emigration among onward migrants. Predicted age-income profiles show that although emigrants in general have higher adjusted mean income levels, up to the age of 35-40, than non-emigrants, onward migrants have lower predicted income levels across the age distribution due to this groups relatively low employment levels in Sweden.

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JOURNAL TABLES OF CONTENTS (check your library for availability):

INGENTA Tables of Contents: INGENTA provides fee based document delivery services for selected journals.

A. Point your browser to:

B. click on "browse by publication"
C. Click the "fax/ariel" radio button, type the Journal Name in the "by words in the title" search box and click "search".
D. View the table of contents for the issue noted.

Journal of Health and Social Behavior (Vol. 45, No. 2, 2004). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

Other Journals

American Journal of Public Health (Vol. 94, No. 9, September 2004). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library and the EBSCO Host Academic Search Elite Database. Check your library for the availability of these databases and this issue.

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National Institutes of Health: "Health Disparities Among Minority and Underserved Women" (PA-04-153, National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR], National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD], National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA], National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [NIDDK], and Office of Research on Women^Òs Health [ORWH], Aug. 27, 2004). For more information see:

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Minnesota Population Center: "Post-Doctoral Associate." "The Minnesota Population Center is looking for several postdocs to work on our IPUMS-International projects. We are especially interested in finding people for the IPUMS-Latin America project, which is creating, harmonizing, and documenting census microdata samples covering most of Latin America over 40 years." For more information see:

Click on "Post-Doctoral Associate".

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US House Ways and Means Committee Compendium: _2004 Green Book: Background Material and Data on the Programs Within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means_ (March 2004, ASCII text and .pdf format). "The House Ways and Means Committee Green Book provides program descriptions and historical data on a wide variety of social and economic topics, including Social Security, employment, earnings, welfare, child support, health insurance, the elderly, families with children, poverty and taxation. It has become a standard reference work for those interested in the direction of social policy in the United States. It is compiled by the staff of the Committee on Ways and Means of the U.S. House of Representatives. GPO Access contains the Green Book 1996, 1998, 2000 and 2004."

Click on "Browse" for link to full text.

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Census Bureau:

A. The Bureau has released Data Profiles, 2003 Multi-Year Profiles, and Public Use Microdata from the 2003 American Community Survey.

Data profiles:

Multi-Year profiles:

Detailed tables:

2000-2003 ACS PUMS:

B. The Bureau has placed data for 2002 "Tabulations of State Tax Data on Income and Exemptions" on its ftp site (ASCII tab delimited format). "There is one file for each tax year, starting with 1989 through 2002. Each file has the state name, state FIPS code, total exemptions, poor exemptions, age exemptions, poor age exemptions, child exemptions, poor child exemptions, total exemptions under age 65,poor exemptions under age 65, mean and median income." See the readme file for record layout of this and all state tax data files going back to 1989.

Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: WLS at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has released Flowcharts for the 2003 graduates, and 2004 graduates spouse and sibling survey instruments.

National Longitudinal Survey: The Bureau of Labor Statistics and Center for Human Resource Research at the Ohio State University released electronic copies of NLSY79 Questionnaires for 2000 and 2002 (C01QX2000 and C01QX2002) ( 2000 in.pdf format, 2002 in HTML format).

Click on "NLSY79" and then scroll to or "find in page" "NLSY79 Questionnaire 2000" and/or "NLSY79 Questionnaire 2002" (without the quotes).

IPUMS Revision: The Integrated Public Use Microdata Samples site at the University of Minnesota announced on Aug. 27, 2004: "Posted a new version of the 2000 5% sample: a correction was made to the METAREA variable."

Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research: ICPSR at the University of Michigan has recently released the following datasets, which may be of interest to demography researchers. Note: Some ICPSR studies are available only to ICPSR member institutions. To find out whether your organization is a member, and whether or not it supports ICPSR Direct downloading, see:

Current Population Survey: Voter Supplement File, November 2002 (#3967)

Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data [United States]: County-Level Detailed Arrest and Offense Data, 2002 (#4009)

Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data [United States]: Arrests by Age, Sex, and Race, Summarized Yearly, 2002 (#4068)

Population Reference Bureau: PRB has updated it's interactive DataFinder web extractor with data from its 2004 World Population Data Sheet.

US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: "Final 2004 County Typology Codes (August 2004, Microsoft Excel format, data layout information is available in the spreadsheet). "To provide policy-relevant information about diverse county conditions to policymakers, public officials, and researchers, ERS has developed a new set of county-level typology codes that captures differences in economic and social characteristics. This release revises the preliminary codes released in May 2004. The 2004 County Typology Codes were developed for all 3,141 counties, county equivalents, and independent cities in the United States. Their primary function is to help differentiate among nonmetro counties, but metro counties are also coded to facilitate comparisons. The 2004 County Typology codes classify all U.S. counties according to six non-overlapping categories of economic dependence and seven overlapping categories of policy-relevant themes. The economic types include farming, mining, manufacturing, services, Federal/State government, and unspecialized counties. The policy types include housing stress, low-education, low-employment, persistent poverty, population loss, nonmetro recreation, and retirement destination.

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PAHO [Pan American Health Organization] Publishing: PAHO Publishing is a "gateway to a comprehensive collection of publications and information resources. The PAHO Publications office has developed an Internet site consisting of valuable information available to users in easy, accessible formats. With this service, PAHO hopes to offer health workers and the general public information that is useful and from reliable sources. This site contains scientific journal articles, the contents of entire books or chapters from these, links, and other indispensable resources related to the issues which have become the most serious of all public health concerns. Readers will also find expert opinions and testimonials, book reviews, calendars of events on a variety of topics, statistical information, and many other highly useful tools. Many of the listed documents are available full-text, and all visitors to the site will have free access to these. Other documents, while not of a gratis nature, are presented with a complete informative summary, information on how they may be acquired, and the link to the respective source."
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tutorial: Kaiser Family Foundation's, discussed in CDERR #26, (Apr. 5, 2004) has recently added a tutorial on"Race, Ethnicity and Health Care," by Caya Lewis (July 2004, HTML [with sound] and Microsoft PowerPoint format).

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Jack Solock
Data Librarian--Center for Demography and Ecology
4470 Social Science
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706