Current Demographic Research Report #60, November 30, 2004.

CDERR (Current Demographic Research Reports) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. This report will contain selected listings of new: reports, articles, bibliographies, working papers, tables of contents, conferences, data, and websites. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


Index to this issue:


National Center for Health Statistics Reports
Centers for Disease Control, Various
Department of Health and Human Services News Release
Congressional Budget Office Report
Bureau of Labor Statistics Periodical
National Center for Education Statistics Report
Bureau of Justice Statistics Report
US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service Reports
World Health Organization Report
International Monetary Fund Monograph
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Reports
UK Department of Health White Paper
_British Medical Journal_, Various
_New England Journal of Medicine_ Perspective Extract
Institute for Women's Policy Research Reports
EngenderHealth Report
Info Health Pop. Reporter


Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
National Bureau of Economic Research
University of Oregon Department of Economics
Washington University at St. Louis Economics Working Paper Archive
University of Cambridge Faculty of Economics
University of Essex Department of Economics
Research Institute of Industrial Economics
Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM)


Other Journals


Panel Study of Income Dynamics Workshop



ICPSR Announcement
Integrated Public Use Microdata Surveys
Census Bureau
Urban Institute
National Center for Education Statistics
Luxembourg Income Study Announcement


Missouri Census Data Center Update
Kaiser Family Foundation, Various
UK Department of Health Healthpovertyindex Visualization Tool



National Center for Health Statistics Reports:

A. "Births: Preliminary Data for 2003," by Brady E. Hamilton, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton (National Vital Statistics Report Vol. 53, No. 9, November 2004, .pdf format, 20p.). The report is linked to from a NCHS news release: "Birth Rate for Women Aged 40-44 Years Rose in 2003, New Report Finds" (Nov. 23, 2004).

Click on "View/download PDF" for full text.

State specific detailed tables (.pdf format, 10p.).

B. "Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2002 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set," by T.J. Mathews, Fay Menacker, and Marian F. MacDorman (National Vital Statistics Report Vol. 53, No. 10, .pdf format, 30p.). The report is linked to from a NCHS news release: "New CDC Report Confirms Increase in 2002 Infant Mortality Rate" (Nov. 24, 2004).

Click on "View/download PDF" for full text.

Centers for Disease Control Periodical, Surveillance Summary, Periodical Article:

A. _Emerging Infectious Diseases_ (Vol. 10, No. 12, December 2004, HTML and .pdf format).

Note: This is a temporary address. When the next _EID_ is released, this one, along with all others, will be available at:

B. "Abortion Surveillance --- United States, 2001" (_Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report_ Surveillance Summary Vol. 53, No. SS-9, November 2004, HTML and .pdf format, 32p.).

See Nov. 26, 2004 issue.

C. "Introduction of Routine HIV Testing in Prenatal Care--Botswana, 2004" (_Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report_, Vol. 53, No. 46, Nov. 26, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1083-1086).



Department of Health and Human Services News Release: "More Than 17 Million Flu Vaccine Doses Shipped In Six Weeks" (Nov.24, 2004).

Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Report: "Daily Marijuana Users," (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, November 2004, HTML and .pdf format, 3p.).

Congressional Budget Office Report: "A Description of the Immigrant Population" (November 2004, .pdf format, 24p.).

Click on the "PDF" tab at the top right corner of the page for link to full text.

Bureau of Labor Statistics Periodical: "Compensation and Working Conditions Online." The latest article was released Nov. 23, 2004.

National Center for Education Statistics Report: "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2004," by Jill F. DeVoe, Katharin Peter, Phillip Kaufman, Amanda Miller, Margaret Noonan, Thomas D. Snyder, and Katrina Baum (NCES 2005002, November 2004, .pdf format, 169p.).


This report presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an array of sources--the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (1995, 1999, 2001, and 2003), the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003), the School Survey on Crime and Safety (2000) and the School and Staffing Survey (1993-94 and 1999-2000). This report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. Data on crime away from school are also presented to place school crime in the context of crime in the larger society.

Bureau of Justice Statistics Report: "Homicide Trends in the United States: 2002 Update," by James Alan Fox and Marianne W. Zawitz (NCJ 204885, November 2004, ASCII text and .pdf format, 4p.).


Outlines the primary findings from the updated section of the BJS website about homicide patterns and trends since 1976. Homicide is of interest not only because of its severity, but also because it is a reliable barometer of violent crime. Topics covered include long term trends in murder and non-negligent homicide, demographic trends, multiple victims and offenders, infanticide, eldercide, homicides by intimates, law enforcement officers killed, justifiable homicides, weapons trends, clearances, regional trends, and trends by city size. The data analyzed are from the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Program's Supplementary Homicide Reports

US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service Reports:

A. "Feasibility and Accuracy of Record Linkage To Estimate Multiple Program Participation: Volume III, Survey of Food Assistance Information Systems--Results of Record Linkage," by Nancy Cole and Ellie Lee (E-FAN No. 03-008-3, November 2004, .pdf format, 69p.).


This study investigated the feasibility of linking administrative data from multiple USDA food assistance and nutrition programs. This report contains findings from Phase II of the study, which collected and linked 2000-02 administrative data on clients of the Food Stamp Program (FSP) and the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Florida, Iowa, and Kentucky. The report finds that the percentage of FSP infants (children) with contemporaneous participation in WIC ranged from 84 to 94 percent (50 to 57 percent). Meanwhile, the percentage of WIC infants (children) with contemporaneous participation in FSP ranged from 22 to 38 percent (29 to 50 percent). Most FSP women who gave birth during the 3-year period participated in WIC for some period (83 percent in Florida and 91 percent in Iowa). Phase II also examined the relative timing of participation across programs and the individual and household characteristics associated with multiple program participation.

Link to full text is at the bottom of the abstract.

B. "Food Stamp Program Access Study: Final Report," by Susan Bartlett, Nancy Burstein, and William Hamilton, and Ryan Kling (E-FAN No. 03013-3, November 2004, .pdf format, 482p.).


The Food Stamp Program Access Study was motivated by a desire to learn whether and how the administrative policies and practices of local food stamp offices influence the chances of eligible households participating in the program. This report examines the participation decisions of potentially eligible households, together with the local office policies and practices that may enhance or inhibit program access. The findings indicate that many households with no recent contact with the FSP would apply for benefits if they believed themselves to be eligible. In addition, outreach activities are effective in communicating eligibility to nonparticipating households. The processes of application and recertification--and to a lesser extent, complying with ongoing program requirements--are hurdles that a sizable number of apparently eligible households fail to surmount. When surveyed, applicants and program dropouts cited various procedural obstacles as factors in their decision not to participate. The econometric analysis also identifies a number of office practices that vary across offices and appear to be significant in participation decisions.

World Health Organization Report: "AIDS Epidemic Update 2004" (2004, HTML and .pdf format, 91p.). The report is linked to from a WHO news release: "Number of women living with HIV increases in each region of the world: Close to half of 37.2 million adults living with HIV are women, according to new UNAIDS/WHO report" (Nov. 23, 2004).

Click on "Full text" under "Report: AIDS Epidemic Update 2004" on the right side of the page.

International Monetary Fund Monograph: _The Macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS_, edited by Markus Haacker (2004). For more information, including abstracts of individual chapters (.pdf format, 11p.), see:

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Reports:

A. "Disability Support Services 2002-03" (November 2004, .pdf format, 115p.). "This report is the first AIHW publication dealing with data from the first year (2002-03) of the redeveloped Commonwealth State/Territory Disability Agreement National Minimum Data Set collection (CSTDA NMDS). This report focuses on service users and their characteristics and service type outlets funded to deliver CSTDA services, within the first six months of 2003."

B. "Medical Labour Force 2002" (November 2004, .pdf format, 26p.). "This report presents demographic and labour force statistics on the medical profession in Australia. It is based on the main findings of the 2002 national survey of registered medical practitioners. Information presented in the report includes the number of registered practitioners in each state and territory, their age and sex profiles, areas of practice, medical specialties and hours worked. The report also includes comparisons with the medical profession five years earlier using data from the 1997 national survey of registered medical practitioners."

C. "Adoptions Australia 2003-04" (Child Welfare Series No. 35, November 2004, .pdf format, 55p.). "This report presents adoption statistics provided by state and territory community services departments for the period 1 July 2003 to 30 June 2004. The report covers all finalised adoptions, including information on adopted children, adoptive families and birth mothers. It provides data on the number of requests for information and the number of contact and information vetoes lodged by parties to an adoption. Important trends in the number of adoptions occurring in Australia over the last 30 years are also a key feature of the report."

UK Department of Health White Paper: "Choosing Health: making healthier choices easier" (November 2004, .pdf format, 207p.). "This White Paper sets out the key
principles for supporting the public to make more healthier and informed choices in regards to their health. The Government will provide information and practical support to get people motivated and improve emotional wellbeing and access to services so that healthy choices are easier to make."

Scroll to bottom of the page for links to full text.

_British Medical Journal Editorial_: "The white paper on public health is promising, but has some blind spots, which must be tackled," by Rosalind Raine, Gill Walt, and Ian Basnett (Vol. 329, No. 7477, Nov. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1247-1248).

_British Medical Journal_ Editorial, News, Primary Care, Education and Debate:

A. "The Mexico Summit on Health Research 2004: Fine words, few actions," by Kamran Abbasi (_BMJ_ Editorial, Vol. 329, No. 7477, Nov. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1249-1250).

B. "Mexico summit calls for greater commitment to health research," by Kamran Abbasi (_BMJ_ News, Vol. 329, No. 7477, Nov. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1258).;329/7477/1258

C. "FDA is incapable of protecting US 'against another Vioxx,' by Jeanne Lenzer (_BMJ_ News, Vol. 329, No. 7477, Nov. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1253).

D. "Public interest group accuses FDA of trying to discredit whistleblower," by Jeanne Lenzer (_BMJ_ News, Vol. 329, No. 7477, Nov. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1255).

E. "Association of deprivation, ethnicity, and sex with quality indicators for diabetes: population based survey of 53,000 patients in primary care," by Julia Hippisley-Cox, Shaun O'Hanlon, and Carol Coupland (_BMJ_ Primary Care, Vol. 329, No. 7477, Nov. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1267-1269).

F. "Socioeconomic inequalities in indicator scores for diabetes: poor quality or poor measures?" by P.G. Shekelle (_BMJ_ Primary Care Commentary, Vol. 329, No. 7477, Nov. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1269-1270).

G. "Barriers to better care for people with AIDS in developing countries," by Andrew S. Furber, Ian J. Hodgson, Alice Desclaux, and David S. Mukasa (_BMJ_ Education and Debate, Vol. 329, No. 7477, Nov. 27, 2004, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1281-1283).

_New England Journal of Medicine_ Perspective Extract: "Health Care Reform in France--The Birth of State-Led Managed Care," by Victor G. Rodwin, and Claude Le Pen (Vol. 351, No. 22, Nov. 25, 2004, p. 2259-2262).

Institute for Women's Policy Research Reports: "The Status of Women in the States: 2004" (2004, .pdf format). Note: Reports for eleven states are available at this time. Reports for other states can be found under 2000 and 2002 series.

Click on any state for a report for that state. Click on "data for all states" at the left side of the page for links to selected state tables (.pdf format). Click on table titles for full text.

More information on IWPR:

EngenderHealth Report: "Postabortion Care for Adolescents: Results from Research in the Dominican Republic and Malawi," by Sally Girvin (November 2004, .pdf format, 9p.).

Click on "here" at the bottom of the page for link to full text.

More information on EngenderHealth:

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Communication Programs Compendium: Info Health Pop. Reporter (Vol. 4, No. 48, Nov. 29, 2004). "The Johns Hopkins University Population Information Program delivers the reproductive health and family planning news you need. Each week our research staff prepares an electronic magazine loaded with links to key news stories, reports, and related developments around the globe."

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Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research: "Childlessness and the concentration of reproduction in Austria," by Martin Spielauer (WP 2004-028, November 2004, .pdf format, 21p.).


In this paper we study the changes of reproduction concentration among women, the levels of childlessness, individual factors influencing childlessness, and the contribution of childlessness to the concentration of reproduction in Austria for the female age cohorts 1917-1961. International comparative studies find a decline in the concentration of reproduction in the last century for all western countries, a trend that was reversed for the most recent cohorts that have reached the end of their reproductive period. This reversal was mainly triggered by an increase of childlessness, a result that can be confirmed also for Austria. The country has one of the highest levels of childlessness, both currently and historically, and changes in the level of childlessness are very pronounced. Austria has very low fertility, too; between the world wars it even witnessed the lowest period fertility in the world. While cohort fertility rates peaked during the baby-boom with 2.5 children per women, fertility
decreased considerably for more recent age cohorts. The recent changes in fertility can be attributed partly to composition effects resulting from the educational expansion of the last decades. As our analysis shows, even in the times of the baby boom, cohort fertility exceeded the reproductive level only for the lowest of eight different educational groups, and this group is rapidly decreasing in size. Besides the strong impact of educational on cohort fertility, childlessness and concentration measures of reproduction, a detailed study based on micro-census data reveals strong urban-rural differentials in the demographic changes of the last decades. We can conclude that the recent re-increase in reproduction concentration is an entirely urban phenomenon. Micro-census data also allow for the study of intergenerational dynamics. Comparing the educational level of women with their parents' educational attainment, we found a strong positive effect on childlessness of downward mobility in the lower end of the educational spectrum. In the upper end of the educational spectrum we found a strong positive effect on childlessness of upward mobility.

National Bureau of Economic Research:

A. "The Distortionary Effects of Government Procurement: Evidence from Medicaid Prescription Drug Purchasing," by Mark Duggan and Fiona Scott Morton (w10930, November 2004, .pdf format, 40p.).


The federal-state Medicaid program insures 43 million people for virtually all of the prescription drugs approved by the FDA. To determine the price that it will pay for a drug treatment, the government uses the average price in the private sector for that same drug. Assuming that Medicaid recipients are unresponsive to price because of the program's zero co-pay, this rule will increase prices for non-Medicaid consumers. Using drug utilization and expenditure data for the top 200 drugs in 1997 and in 2002, we investigate the relationship between the Medicaid market share (MMS) and the average price of a prescription. Our findings suggest that the Medicaid rules substantially increase equilibrium prices for non-Medicaid consumers. Specifically, a ten percentage-point increase in the MMS is associated with a ten percent increase in the average price of a prescription. This result is robust to the inclusion of controls for a drug's therapeutic class, the existence of generic competition, the number of brand competitors, and the years since the drug entered the market. We also demonstrate that the Medicaid rules increase a firm's incentive to introduce new versions of a drug at higher prices and find empirical evidence in support of this for drugs that do not face generic competition. Taken together, our findings suggest that government procurement can have an important effect on equilibrium prices in the private sector.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

B. "The Structure of Early Care and Education in the United States: Historical Evolution and International Comparisons," by Ann Dryden Witte and Marisol Trowbridge (w10931, November 2004, .pdf format, 33p.).


Most European governments have universal, consolidated, education-based ECE programs that are available from early in the morning to late in the evening throughout the year. European ECE programs are uniformly of high quality, generally last at least three years, and are funded to serve all children. The US ECE system is composed of three separate programs (Head Start, Pre-Kindergarten (Pre-K) and the child care voucher program) targeted to low-income children. With a few notable exceptions, US ECE programs are funded to serve less than half of the eligible children. US ECE programs developed quite separately. They have different goals, different funding sources, different administrations and policies, and generally last for an academic year or less. Pre-K and Head Start operate only 3 to 6 hours a day and are open only during the academic year. The average quality of US ECE programs is generally much lower than the average quality of European ECE programs. Further, the quality of US ECE programs varies widely even within local areas. Although the US has greatly increased expenditures on ECE, US governments pay only 40% of the costs of ECE, while European governments pay 70% to 90% of the costs of ECE. None of the major US ECE programs simultaneously provides work supports for parents, child development opportunities for children and preparation for school for low-income children. The evidence suggests that the US ECE system is neither efficient nor equitable. Consolidation of funding and administration of current US ECE programs could substantially lower transaction costs for parents and provide more stable care arrangements for children. Increased funding could improve the quality of existing programs, extend hours and months of operation, and make care available to all eligible families. Both the evaluation literature and the European experience suggest that such a consolidated, well-funded system could be successful in preparing poor children for school. Further, the benefits of such a program could well exceed the costs since it is precisely low-income children that benefit most from stable, high-quality ECE. However, such a targeted program will have neither the positive peer group effects nor the social-integration benefits of universal ECE programs.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

C. "Partnership Status and the Human Sex Ratio at Birth," by Karen Norberg (w10920, November 2004, .pdf format, 22p.).


If two-parent care has different consequences for the reproductive success of sons and daughters, then natural selection may favor adjustment of the sex ratio at birth according to circumstances that forecast later family structure. In humans, this partnership status hypothesis predicts fewer sons among extra-pair conceptions, but the rival "attractiveness" hypothesis predicts more sons among extra-pair conceptions, and the "fixed phenotype" hypothesis predicts a constant probability of having a son, regardless of partnership status. In a sample of 86,436 human births pooled from five US population-based surveys, I find 51.5% male births reported by respondents who were living with a spouse or partner before the child's conception or birth, and 49.9% male births reported by respondents who were not (X2=16.77, d.f. = 1, p<.0001). The effect was not explained by paternal bias against daughters, by parental age, education, income, ethnicity, or by year of observation, and was larger when comparisons were made between siblings. To my knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for conditional adjustment of the sex ratio at birth in humans, and could explain the recent decline in the sex ratio at birth in some developed countries.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

D. "Fast Times at Ridgemont High? The Effect of Compulsory Schooling Laws on Teenage Births," by Sandra E. Black, Paul J. Devereaux and Kjell Salvanes (w10911, November 2004, .pdf format, 45p.).


Research suggests that teenage childbearing adversely affects both the outcomes of the mothers as well as those of their children. We know that low-educated women are more likely to have a teenage birth, but does this imply that policies that increase educational attainment reduce early fertility? This paper investigates whether increasing mandatory educational attainment through compulsory schooling legislation encourages women to delay childbearing. We use variation induced by changes in compulsory schooling laws in both the United States and Norway to estimate the effect in two very different institutional environments. We find evidence that increased compulsory schooling does in fact reduce the incidence of teenage childbearing in both the United States and Norway, and these results are quite robust to various specification checks. Somewhat surprisingly, we also find that the magnitude of these effects is quite similar in the two countries. These results suggest that legislation aimed at improving educational outcomes may have spillover effects onto the fertility decisions of teenagers.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

E. "Why Are Power Couples Increasingly Concentrated in Large Metropolitan Areas," by Janice Compton and Robert A. Pollak (w10918, November 2004, .pdf format, 42p.).


Using census data, Costa and Kahn (QJE, 2000) find that power couples - couples in which both spouses have college degrees - are increasingly likely to be located in the largest metropolitan areas. One explanation for this trend is that college educated couples are more likely to face a co-location problem - the desire to satisfy the career aspirations of both spouses - and therefore are more attracted to large labor markets than are other couples. An alternative explanation is that all college educated individuals, married and unmarried, are attracted to the amenities and high returns to education found in large cities and that as a result, the formation of power couples through marriage of educated singles and additional education is more likely to occur in larger than smaller metropolitan areas. Using the Panel Study of Income
Dynamics (PSID), we analyze the dynamic patterns of migration, marriage, divorce and education in relation to city size and find that power couples are not more likely to migrate to the largest cities than part-power couples or power singles. Instead, the location trends are better explained by the higher rate of power couple formation in larger metropolitan areas. Regression analysis suggests that it is only the education of the husband and not the joint education profile of the couple that affects the propensity to migrate to large metropolitan areas.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

F. "Speeding, Tax Fraud, and Teaching to the Test," by Edward P. Lazear (w10932, November 2004, .pdf format, 45p.).


Educators worry that high-stakes testing will induce teachers and their students to focus only on the test and ignore other, untested aspects of knowledge. Some counter that although this may be true, knowing something is better than knowing nothing and many students would benefit even by learning the material that is to be tested. Using the metaphor of deterring drivers from speeding, it is shown that the optimal rules for high-stakes testing depend on the costs of learning and of monitoring. For high cost learners, and when monitoring technology is inefficient, it is better to announce what will be tested. For efficient learners, de-emphasizing the test itself is the right strategy. This is analogous to telling drivers where the police are posted when police are few. At least there will be no speeding on those roads. When police are abundant or when the fine is high relative to the benefit from speeding, it is better to keep police locations secret, which results in obeying the law everywhere. Children who are high cost learners are less likely to learn all the material and therefore learn more when they are told what is on the exam. The same logic also implies that tests should be clearly defined for younger children, but more amorphous for more advanced students.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

University of Oregon Department of Economics: "The Rising Share of Nonmarital Births: Fertility Choices or Marriage Behavior?" by Jo Anna Gray, Jean Stockard, and Joe Stone (WP 2004-17, November 2004, .pdf format, 32p.).


Much of the sharp rise in the share of nonmarital births in the United States has been attributed to changes in the fertility choices of unmarried and married women - in response, it is often argued, to various public policies. In contrast, we develop and test a model that attributes the rise to changes in marriage behavior, with no changes in fertility. A variety of empirical tests strongly supports this conclusion and invites focused attention to issues related to marriage behavior, as well as the interactions between marriage and fertility.

Click on the link under "Downloads" at the bottom of the abstract for full text.

Washington University at St. Louis (Missouri) Economics Working Paper Archive:

A. "Robbery and Race," by Brendan O'Flaherty and Rajiv Sethi (November 2004, .pdf format, 37p.).


Robbery is a serious, widespread and sometimes violent crime resulting each year in costs to victims of several billion dollars. Data on the incidence of robbery reveals certain striking racial disparities. African Americans are more likely to be victims, arrestees and prisoners than members of other demographic groups, and while black-on-white robberies are very common, white-on-black robberies are extremely rare. We develop a model of robbery that attempts to address these and other stylized facts. The key insight underlying the model is that robberies are typically interactions between strangers which involve a sequence of rapid decisions with severely limited information. Potential offenders must assess the likelihood of victim resistance, and victims must assess the likelihood that resistance will be met with violence. Racial disparities in the distribution of income can cause such probability assessments to be race-contingent, affecting crime rates as well as rates of resistance and violence. We argue that this model helps account for several empirical regularities that appear puzzling from the perspective of alternative theories of crime.

B. "Early Childbirth, Health Inputs and Child Mortality: Recent Evidence from Bangladesh," by Pushkar Maitra and Sarmistha Pal (November 2004, .pdf format, 50p.).


This paper examines the relationship between early childbearing, parental use of health inputs and child mortality in Bangladesh. In order to account for the potential endogeneity of the age at birth and use of health inputs, (hospital delivery and child vaccination) in the child mortality regression, we jointly estimate mother's age at childbirth, hospital delivery, child vaccination and child mortality taking into account of unobserved mother level heterogeneity. There is evidence of significant self-selection in the use of health inputs especially among young mothers and that the failure to account for self-selection results in biased estimates. These estimates suggest that women having early childbirth tend to use health inputs differently from all other women. After correcting for this possible selectivity bias, the adverse effects of early childbirth turns out to be less pronounced while the favourable effects of use of health inputs on child survival still remains significant in our sample.

University of Cambridge Faculty of Economics: "Multiple Social Interaction and Reproductive Externalities: An Investigation of Fertility Behaviour in Kenya," by Sriya Iyer and Melvyn Weeks (WP 0461, November 2004, .pdf format, 47p.).


This paper examines the impact of reproductive externalities on fertility behaviour in Kenya by quantifying the effects of group membership on the number of children born. We focus on the identification of structural forms of social interaction operating across individuals in the context of fertility behaviour. While structural forms of dependence may be separated from residual dependence, we also highlight the importance of difference expressions of structural dependence, including multiple expressions of social interaction. Using this idea of multiple social interactions, we use the 1998 Demographic and Health Survey on 5994 women from Kenya to examine whether the 'local' effect of household-level influences and cluster-level residential settlement is important relative to the more 'global' effect of ethnicity on fertility behaviour. In so doing, we conclude that the importance of multiple social interactions is that the assumption of a single model of interaction can lead to incorrect inferences.

Click on "Download the PDF" at the bottom of the abstract for full text.

University of Essex [Colchester, UK] Department of Economics: "Gender Discrimination and Efficiency in Marriage: the Bargaining Family under Scrutiny," by Helmut Rainer (Discussion Paper 586, November 2004, .pdf format, 37p.).


This paper criticizes the view that discrimination limits the disadvantaged sex to undertaking housework and thus ensures that gains from specialization at the household level are not wasted. Our framework gives attention to causal links between labor market discrimination and the strategic behavior of women and men within families. We consider a repeated family bargaining model that links the topics of employment and households. A key aspect of the model is that marital bargaining power is determined endogenously: the amount of money a person earns - in comparison with a partner's income - establishes relative marital bargaining power. Gender discrimination can alter household behavior in surprising and sometimes unfortunate ways. We show that: (i) the efficiency of household decisions is sometimes inversely related to the prevailing degree of gender discrimination in labor markets; (ii) discriminated against females have difficulty enforcing cooperative household outcomes since they may be extremely limited to credibly punish opportunistic behavior by their male partners; (iii) the likelihood that sharing rules such as "equal sharing" are maintained throughout a marriage relationship is highest when men and women face equal opportunities in labor markets. A key policy implication obtained from our analysis is that efforts to promote greater gender equality in labor markets can also contribute to increasing the likelihood of fully cooperative outcomes at the household level.

Research Institute of Industrial Economics [Stockholm, Sweden]: "Intergenerational Education Transmission: Neighborhood Quality and/or Parents' Involvement?" by Eleonora Patacchini and Yves Zenou (Working Paper 631, October 2004, .pdf format, 36p.).


Using cultural transmission, we develop a model that gives some microfoundation to the impact of residential neighborhood on children's educational attainment and then test it using the UK National Child Development Study. We find that, for high-educated parents, the better the quality of the neighborhood in terms of human capital, the higher the parent's involvement in children's education, indicating cultural complementarity. For high-educated parents, we also find that both parents' involvement in education and neighborhood's quality significantly affect the intergenerational transmission of education, the former being more potent than the latter. Low-educated parents do not spend much time educating their offspring and we show that only the quality of the neighborhood has a significant impact on their children's educational attainment.

Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) [University of Bonn, Germany]:

A. "European Labour Mobility: Challenges and Potentials," by Klaus F. Zimmermann (Discussion Paper 1410, November 2004, .pdf format, 32p.).


European Union economies are pressed by (i) a demographic change that induces population ageing and a decline of the workforce, and (ii) a split labour market that is characterized by high levels of unemployment for low-skilled people and a simultaneous shortage of skilled workers. This lack of flexible high-skilled workers and the ageing process has created the image of an immobile labour force and the eurosklerosis phenomenon. In such a situation, an economically motivated immigration policy at the European level can generate welfare improvements. A selective policy that discourages unskilled migrants and attracts skilled foreign workers will vitalize the labour market, foster growth and increase demand for unskilled native workers. The paper summarizes the available economic insights, and suggests (i) the need to harmonize the single-country migration policies across Europe and (ii) that the European Union needs to become an active player on the international labour markets.

B. "Incentives and Effort in the Public Sector: Have U.S. Education Reforms Increased Teachers' Work Hours?" by Christiana Stoddard and Peter Kuhn (Discussion Paper 1412, November 2004, .pdf format, 37p.).


Beyond some contracted minimum, salaried workers' hours are largely chosen at the worker's discretion and should respond to the strength of contract incentives. Accordingly, we consider the response of teacher hours to accountability and school choice laws introduced in U.S. public schools over the past two decades. Total weekly hours of full-time teachers have risen steadily since 1983 by about an hour, and after-school instructional hours have increased 34 percent since 1987. Average hours and the rate of increase also vary widely across states. However, after accounting for a common time trend in hours, we find no association between the introduction of accountability legislation and the change in teacher hours. We conjecture that the weak link between effort and compensation in most school reforms helps explain the lack of such an association.

Center for Economic Studies/Ifo Institute for Economic Research (CESifo) [University of Munich, Germany]: "Fertility, Mortality, and the Developed World's Demographic Transition," by Hans Fehr, Sabine Jokisch, and Laurence Kotlikoff (Working Paper 1326, November 2004, .pdf format, 30p.).


This study uses Fehr, Jokisch, and Kotlikoff's (2004a) dynamic general equilibrium model to analyze the effects of changes in fertility and mortality on the developed world's demographic transition. The model features three regions-- the U.S., Japan, and the EU-15--and incorporates age- and time-specific fertility and mortality rates, detailed fiscal institutions, and international capital mobility, subject to adjustment costs. Our simulations confirm the offsetting fiscal and economic consequences of both higher fertility and lower mortality rates. The simulations indicate very minor effects on the developed world's rather bleak baseline transition path from either major increases in fertility rates or major reductions in mortality rates.

National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM) [University of Canberra, Australia]: "Economic and Health Impacts of Narrower Health Inequalities, Australia," by Agnes Walker (Conference Paper CP2004_012, November 2004, .pdf format, 14p.)


Objective: to estimate the health and economic impacts of narrower health inequalities in Australia. The health impacts are measured in terms of improved mortality and disability rates, and the economic impacts in terms of lower government expenditures on health care costs and on the disability support pension.

Material and methods: this paper reports on an application of a dynamic microsimulation model which accounts-amongst many other variables-for the links between Australians' socioeconomic status and their health. The full model simulates individuals' life cycles over a 20 to 30 year period. Its base year data was developed using a 1 per cent unit record Census sample of the Australian population. Health is proxied by linked mortality and disability equations, accounting for the fact that healthy people generally live longer than the disabled. For socioeconomic status the analyst can choose from four types of indicators.

Results: if a policy was implemented which resulted in the lifting of the health status of all Australians to that of the most affluent 20% in the population, then close to one million fewer Australians are estimated to be disabled, over 180,000 life years could be saved, health care costs would be around A$3 billion lower and the government could save close to A$1 billion on the disability support pension.

Conclusion: the narrowing of health inequalities at the national level has the potential to deliver, in the longer term, considerable health and cost saving benefits.

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JOURNAL TABLES OF CONTENTS (check your library for availability):

INGENTA Tables of Contents: INGENTA provides fee based document delivery services for selected journals.

A. Point your browser to:

B. click on "advanced search"
C. Type in your publication name and click "Exact title" radio button
D. Under "Show", click the "fax/ariel" radio button.
E. View the table of contents for the issue noted.

Ethnicity and Disease (Vol. 14, No. 4, 2004).

Latin American Research Review (Vol. 39, No. 3, 2004). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library and the EBSCO Host Academic Search Elite Database. Check your library for the availability of these databases and this issue.


Other Journals

American Journal of Epidemiology (Vol. 160, No. 11, Dec. 1, 2004).

American Journal of Public Health (Vol. 94, No. 12, December 2004). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library and the EBSCO Host Academic Search Elite Database. Check your library for the availability of these databases and this issue.

International Journal for Quality in Health Care (Vol. 16, No. 6, December 2004). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

Click on "December 2004" for link to table of contents.

Journal of Family Issues (Vol. 26, No. 1, January 2005).

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Panel Study of Income Dynamics Workshop: "The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID, [Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan]) invites you to attend a free 3-hour workshop entitled "Introduction to Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement," to be held one day prior to the annual meeting of the Population Association of America (PAA) on Wednesday, March 30, 2005 from 2:00-5:00 pm, at the Philadelphia [Pennsylvania, USA] Marriott in Conference Rooms 401-402, Level Four. Please contact the PSID at to register for this free workshop by February 15, 2005."



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Inter-University Consortium for Political and Economic Research Announcement: "ICPSR Changes File Compression Format." "ICPSR has converted the compression format of its files from Gzip to WinZip. Formerly, our data files were compressed using GNU Gzip data compression software and had the .gz file name
extension. Beginning November 29, all files are compacted using Windows Zip compression and will bear the .zip file name extension."

Integrated Public Use Microdata Surveys: University of Minnesota IPUMS has added the following datasets to its beta extraction system: "the 2003 American Community Survey (ACS) sample, the 1990 Labor Market Areas sample, the 1980 Labor Market Areas sample, and the 1980 Detailed Metro/Nonmetro sample." For more information about these datasets, see the links at:

Click on links under the November 23, 2004 item.

Census Bureau: "County Business Patterns 2002." "County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides subnational economic data by industry. The series is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark for statistical series, surveys, and databases between economic censuses. Businesses use the data for analyzing market potential, measuring the effectiveness of sales and advertising programs, setting sales quotas, and developing budgets. Government agencies use the data for administration and planning."

Urban Institute Data User's Guide: "NSAF (National Survey of America's Families) Public Use File User's Guide," by Natalie Abi-Habib, Adam Safir, and Timothy Triplett (November 2004, .pdf format, 53p.). "This report provides documentation for the 1997-2002 NSAF Public Use Files, each set of which includes data on approximately 42,000 households, yielding information on over 100,000 people. This report gives an overview of the survey, describes the sample design and methodology used, and discusses the limitations on use of the survey data. After providing an overview of the NSAF data, it also describes how to use the data files, and offers instructions and examples on how to use the NSAF survey weights."

National Center for Education Statistics: "1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) Data File User's Manual," by Steven C. Tourkin, Kathleen Wise Pugh, Sharon E. Fondelier, Randall J. Parmer, Cornette Cole, Betty Jackson, Toni Warner, Gayle Weant, Elizabeth Walter, Kerry Gruber, and Lynn Zhao (NCES 2004303, November 2004, .pdf format, 161p., with User's Manual Appendices, .pdf format).


The Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) collects data on public and private elementary and secondary schools. SASS provides data on the characteristics and qualifications of teachers and principals, teacher hiring practices, professional development, class size, and other conditions in schools across the nation. This data file user's manual is intended to document the data collection of the 1999-2000 SASS.

Luxembourg Income Study Announcement: "New approach for missing values." (November 2004). For more information see:

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Missouri Census Data Center: "Rx: A Cure for the Common Codes" (University of Missouri) Update: "The United States page with geographic codes for the entire country, which is part of the Cure for the Common Codes (CCC) web application, has been added to the site. The site was originally discussed in the Nov. 15, 2004 issue of CDERR (#58--

Click on "United States".

Kaiser Family Foundation World AIDS Day 2004 Resources, Updates:

A. "World AIDS Day began in 1988 to focus global attention on the HIV/AIDS epidemic across countries, organizations and governments. The theme of World AIDS Day 2004 focuses on women, girls, and HIV and AIDS and seeks to explore how gender inequality fuels the AIDS epidemic.The links on this page will connect you to the Foundation's latest research, analysis, and innovative public health campaigns related to HIV/AIDS and to a range of other domestic and international World AIDS Day resources and activities."

B. The latest updates and additions to Kaiser's site are available at:

UK Department of Health Healthpovertyindex Visualization Tool: "The HPI visualisation tool, a collaboration between the Social Disadvantage Research Centre (SDRC), University of Oxford, and the South East Public Health Observatory (SEPHO) and the Department of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, which is sponsored by the Department of Health."

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Jack Solock
Data Librarian--Center for Demography and Ecology
4470 Social Science University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706