Current Demographic Research Report #66, January 18, 2005.

CDERR (Current Demographic Research Reports) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. This report will contain selected listings of new: reports, articles, bibliographies, working papers, tables of contents, conferences, data, and websites. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


Index to this issue:


Centers for Disease Control Periodical
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services News Release
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Statistical Briefs
Government Accountability Office Report
Bureau of Labor Statistics Report
Bureau of Justice Statistics Report
US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service Reports
United Nations Development Programme Report
National Research Council Monographs
Kaiser Family Foundation Survey
Urban Institute Briefs
Brookings Institution Report
Population Reference Bureau Articles
Council for Affordable Health Insurance Report
Center for Policy Research (India) Monograph
Info Health Pop. Reporter
National Longitudinal Survey Bibliography Updates


National Bureau of Economic Research
Harvard Institute of Economic Research
Princeton University Center for Health and Wellbeing
Princeton University Education Research Section
Yale University Economic Growth Center
Luxembourg Income Study
Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Department of Economics, University of York [UK]
National Institute for Economic and Social Research [UK]
School of Economics, Finance, and Management, University of Bristol [UK]
Centre for European Labour Market Studies (CELMS)
World Bank Policy Research Program
Economics Working Paper Archive, Washington University at St. Louis


Reseau Esperance de Vie en Sante (REVES)
Association of Survey Computing


Population Reference Bureau


Senate Governmental Affairs Hearing Publication


Census Bureau
Carolina Population Center China Health and Nutrition Survey
National Center for Education Statistics
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR)



Centers for Disease Control Periodical: The latest issue of _Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report_ (Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan. 14, 2005, HTML and .pdf format) contains four articles on racial disparities in health.

Note: This is a temporary address. When the next _MMWR_ is released, this one will be available at:

When the first issue of 2006 is released, this one will be available at:

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services News Release: "Health Care Spending In The United States Slows For The First Time In Seven Years" (Jan. 11, 2005). Note: At the bottom of the news release, there is a link to "Detailed national health spending estimates" (including .zip compressed comma separated value [.csv] format data).

Department of Health and Human Services/US Department of Agriculture Report: "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005" (January 2005, .pdf format, 70p.).

Click on "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005" to link to a version that is broken up by chapters. Click on "PDF" next to "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005" for a single .pdf version.

Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Report: "Illicit Drug Use Among Lifetime Non Drinkers and Lifetime Alcohol Users" (National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), January 2005, HTML and .pdf format, 3p.).

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Statistical Briefs:

A. "Family Health Care Expenses, by Income Level, 2002," by Steven R. Machlin, and Marc W. Zodet (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Statistical Brief No. 64, January 2005, .pdf format, 6p.).


Using data from the Household Component of the 2002 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS-HC), this Statistical Brief provides descriptive statistics on total and out-of-pocket health care expenses in 2002 for families, by income level.

B. "Family Health Care Expenses, by Size of Family, 2002," by Steven R. Machlin, and Marc W. Zodet (Statistical Brief No. 65, January 2005, .pdf format, 6p.).


Using data from the Household Component of the 2002 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS-HC), this Statistical Brief provides descriptive statistics on total and out-of-pocket health care expenses in 2002 for families, by size of family.

Government Accountability Office Report: "Charter Schools: To Enhance Education's Monitoring and Research, More Charter-School-Level Data Are Needed" (GAO-05-5, January 2005, .pdf format, 68p.)

Note: This is a temporary addresses. GAO reports are always available at:

Bureau of Labor Statistics Report: "National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Private Industry, 2002-2003" (BLS Bulletin 2573, January 2005, .pdf format, 128p.).

Bureau of Justice Statistics Report: "Violent Victimization of College Students, 1995-2002" (NCJ 206836, January 2005, ASCII text and .pdf format, with .zip compressed spreadsheets).


Examines the incidence of college student victimization and compares the findings to persons of similar ages in the general population. In addition, the report describes the extent to which student victimization occurs on campus and in off-campus locations and settings, as well as the involvement of alcohol and drugs in student victimizations.

US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service Reports:

A. "Interstate Variation in WIC Food Package Costs: The Role of Food Prices, Caseload Composition, and Cost-Containment Practices," by David E. Davis and Ephraim S. Leibtag (Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report No. FANRR41, January 2005, .pdf format, 41p.).


Food prices within States affect average monthly costs of State food benefits packages provided by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) more than variations in WIC caseload composition do. In addition, cost-containment practices by State WIC agencies provide different levels of cost savings in different areas, which also contributes to interstate variation in benefits package costs. This study is one of the few to examine the degree to which food prices, caseloads, and cost-containment practices influence costs of State WIC food benefits packages. Because few data exist on the actual food items that WIC participants purchase, the study used a scanner dataset of supermarket transactions and other sources to estimate the average monthly cost of WIC food benefits in several areas.

B. "An Economic Model of WIC, the Infant Formula Rebate Program, and the Retail Price of Infant Formula," by Mark Prell (Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report No. FANRR39-2, January 2005, .pdf format, 39p.).


This report develops an economic model that provides the theoretical framework for the econometric analyses presented in the report's companion volume, WIC and the Retail Price of Infant Formula (FANRR-39-1). The model examines supermarket retail prices for infant formula in a local market area, and identifies the theoretical effects of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and its infant formula rebate program. Special attention is given to the rebate program's sole-source procurement system by which a single manufacturer becomes a State's "contract brand" --the State's one supplier of formula to WIC infants--in exchange for paying rebates to WIC. When a manufacturer's brand is designated a State's contract brand, the model predicts that supermarkets increase that brand's retail price. The model also predicts that an increase in the ratio of WIC to non-WIC formula-fed infants in a local market results in an increase in the price of the contract brand and, through demand substitution, a relatively small price increase for non-contract brands.

C. "Background Report on the Use and Impact of Food Assistance Programs on Indian Reservations," by Kenneth Finegold, Nancy Pindus, Laura Wherry, Sandi Nelson, Timothy Triplett, and Randy Capps (Contractor and Cooperator Report No. CCR4, January 2005, .pdf format, 100p.).


The report reviews existing data sources and prior research on six programs operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture that provide food assistance to American Indians living on or near reservations. The purpose of the review is to help identify future research needs and opportunities to exploit administrative data systems and recurring national surveys. The programs covered are the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR), the Food Stamp Program (FSP), the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), the National School Lunch Program, the School Breakfast Program, and the Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP). Research topics of continuing importance include the impacts of reservation food assistance on health and nutrition, the characteristics that make nutrition education effective on reservations, the dynamics of program participation, and the contribution of tribal administration to program coordination.

D. "Parenting Practices and Obesity in Low-income African-American Preschoolers," by Scott W. Powers (Contractor and Cooperator Report No. CCR3, January 2005, .pdf format, 18p.).


This study developed and administered a questionnaire to identify feeding practices among low-income African-American mothers and eating behaviors in their preschool children that are associated with childhood obesity. The findings do not appear to implicate feeding practices to childhood obesity in this sample of preschoolers. However, before concluding that feeding practices are not associated with childhood weight status, further research is needed to ensure that the constructs used accurately assess feeding practices in specific populations. Further research is also needed using a larger sample of overweight children to compare the findings with those among children of normal weight.

United Nations Development Programme Report: "Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millenium Development Goals" (2005, .pdf format, 329p.).

Note: The entire publication can be obtained in one download at the bottom of the page.

National Research Council Monographs:

A. _Mathematical and Scientific Development in Early Childhood: A Workshop Summary_, by Alix Beatty (National Academies Press, 2005, OpenBook format, 54p.) Note: Ordering information for a print copy is available at the site.

B. _Experimental Poverty Measures: Summary of a Workshop_, by John Iceland (National Academies Press, January 2005, OpenBook format, 56p.). Note: Ordering information for a print copy is available at the site.

Kaiser Family Foundation Survey: "Health Care Agenda for the New Congress" (January 2005, chartpack, .pdf format, 25p., survey toplines, .pdf format, 29p.). "This survey captures the public's attitudes regarding the health care agenda for Bush's second term and the new Congress in 2005. It assesses the relative priority placed on health-care concerns by the American public and also provides insight into public opinion on key issues likely to face the new Congress, such as implementing the Medicare drug law, controlling health care costs, reducing the nation's uninsured population and reforming the malpractice litigation system. This survey of almost 1,400 adults was conducted in November after the Presidential and Congressional elections."

Urban Institute Briefs:

A. "How Did the 2001 Recession Affect Single Mothers?" by Robert I. Lerman (Single Parent's Earnings Monitor No. 3, January 2005, HTML and.pdf format, 2p.)

B. "Child Welfare Spending during a Time of Fiscal Stress," by Roseana Bess and Cynthia Andrews Scarcella (Child Welfare Research Program Brief No. 1, December 2004, HTML and .pdf format, 2p.).

Brookings Institution Report: "Barriers and Bridges: Access to Education for Internally Displaced Children," by Erin Mooney and Colleen French (The Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement, January 2005, .pdf format, 8p.).

Click on "View Full Paper" for full text.

Population Reference Bureau Articles:

A. "In Asia, Doing the Right Thing to Beat the AIDS Pandemic," by Karen Stanecki (December 2004).,_Doing_the_Right_Thing_to_Beat_the_AIDS_Pandemic.htm

B. "The Indian Ocean Tsunami: Special Challenges for Women Survivors," by Robert Lalasz (January 2005).

C. "Full-Time Work No Guarantee of Livelihood for Many U.S. Families," by Robert Lalasz (January 2005).

Council for Affordable Health Insurance Report: "Health Insurance Mandates in the States: 2005," by Victoria C. Bunce and J.P. Wieske (January 2005, .pdf format, 7p.). The report is linked to from a CAHI press release: "CAHI Releases Updated State Mandate Publication: 1,825 Mandates Identified, Plus Assessments of Their Cost" (Jan. 11, 2005).

Click on "Health Insurance Mandates in the States" for full text.

More information on CAHI:

Center for Policy Research (India) Monograph: _Population Policy of India: Implementation Strategies at National and State Levels_, edited by Badri N. Saxena, Charan D. Wadhva and O.P. Sharma (Sterling Publishers, 2004, 432p., ISBN 8120727568) For more information see:

and search for "Population Policy of India" (without the quotes) in the title.

More information on CPR India:

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Communication Programs Compendium: Info Health Pop. Reporter (Vol. 5, No. 2 Jan. 17, 2005). "The Johns Hopkins University Population Information Program delivers the reproductive health and family planning news you need. Each week our research staff prepares an electronic magazine loaded with links to key news stories, reports, and related developments around the globe."

National Longitudinal Survey Bibliography Updates: Note: These citations, along with all of the NLS bibliography, can be found at:

Note: Where available, direct links to full text have been provided. These references represent updated citations from Dec. 13, 2004 - Jan. 14, 2005.

Family Structure, Intergenerational Mobility and the Reproduction of Poverty: Evidence for Increasing Polarization?
Demography 41,4 (November 2004): 629-649
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4798
Publisher: Population Association of America

Does Remarriage Matter? The Well-Being of Adolescents Living with Cohabiting versus Remarried Mothers
Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 41,3/4 (2004): 115-134
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4799
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.

The Wealth Effects of Smoking
Tobacco Control 13,4 (December 2004): 370-374. Also:
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4800
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group

There's No Place Like Home: The Relationship of Nonstandard Employment and Home Ownership over the 1990s
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 63,4 (October 2004): 881-896
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4801
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.

Do the Skills of Adults Employed in Minimum Wage Contour Jobs Explain Why They Get Paid Less?
Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27,1 (Fall 2004): 37-66
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4802
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.

The Wage Effects of Obesity: A Longitudinal Study.
Health Economics 13,9 (September 2004): 885-899
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4803
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Broken Ladders or Boundaryless Careers? Job Instability and Worker Well Being
Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers The State University Of New Jersey - New Brunswick,
2004. DAI-A 65/06, p. 2383, Dec 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4804
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, now Bell and Howell Information and Learning

A Counterfactual Approach to the Black-White Differential in Family Trends: The Effect of a 'Total Institution'
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2004. DAI-A 65/06, p. 2373, Dec 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4805
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, now Bell and Howell Information and Learning

Job Search and Labor Force Participation in Equilibrium: Theory and Estimation
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2004. DAI-A 65/06, p. 2312, Dec 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4806
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, now Bell and Howell Information and Learning

Parent Religiosity, Family Processes, and Adolescent Outcomes
Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services 85, 4
(October/December 2004): 495-510. See also:
Cohort(s): NLSY97
ID Number: 4807
Publisher: Manticore Publishers

Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Educational Attainment
American Sociological Review 69,5 (October 2004): 636-658
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
ID Number: 4808
Publisher: American Sociological Association

Family Formation Among Women In The U.S. Military: Evidence From The NLSY
Journal of Marriage and the Family 67,1 (February 2005): 1-13
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4809
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations

Women's Employment Patterns During Early Parenthood: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis
Journal of Marriage and the Family 67,1 (February 2005): 222-240
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4810
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations

Marital Disruption and Accidents/Injuries Among Children
Journal of Family Issues 26,1 (January 2005): 3-32
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
ID Number: 4811
Publisher: Sage Publications

The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Child Development
Journal of Labor Economics 23,1 (January 2005): 177-212
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
ID Number: 4812
Publisher: University of Chicago Press

Poverty over Time and Location: An Examination of Metro-Nonmetro Differences
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 86,5 (December 2004): 1282-1289
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4813
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

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National Bureau of Economic Research:

A. "Drinking and Academic Performance in High School," by Jeff DeSimone and Amy M. Wolaver (w11035, January 2005, .pdf format, 33p.).


This paper examines the relationship between drinking and academic performance for high school students in 2001 and 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data. In particular, we attempt to determine the extent to which the observed negative association between alcohol use and grades reflects correlated unobserved factors rather than a true causal impact of drinking. Taking advantage of the abundant information the YRBS collects on behaviors that are potentially related with both drinking and academic performance, we estimate regressions that successively add proxies for risk and time preference, mental health and self-esteem, along with measures of other substances used. Results indicate that although estimated effects of drinking on grades are substantially reduced in magnitude when these additional covariates are included, they typically remain significantly negative. The impact on the extensive margin is over twice as large for binge drinking than for non-binge drinking, and binge drinking also has intensive margin effects that non-binge drinking does not. Drinking-related grade reductions are larger among those who are more risk averse and future-oriented. An absence of effects on outcomes with which drinking is likely associated in a non-causal way provides further support for our interpretation of the coefficient estimates as causal effects.

B. "Globalization, Labor Income, and Poverty in Mexico," by Gordon H. Hanson (w11027, January 2005, .pdf format, 50p.).


In this paper, I examine changes in the distribution of labor income across regions of Mexico during the country's decade of globalization in the 1990's. I focus the analysis on men born in states with either high-exposure or low-exposure to globalization, as measured by the share of foreign direct investment, imports, or export assembly in state GDP. Controlling for regional differences in the distribution of observable characteristics and for initial differences in regional incomes, the distribution of labor income in high-exposure states shifted to the right relative to the distribution of income in low-exposure states. This change was primarily the result of a shift in mass in the income distribution for low-exposure states from upper-middle income earners to lower income earners. Labor income in low-exposure states fell relative to high-exposure states by 10% and the incidence of wage poverty (the fraction of wage earners whose labor income would not sustain a family of four at above-poverty consumption levels) in low-exposure states increased relative to high-exposure states by 7%.

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address for full text.

Harvard Institute of Economic Research: "Child labor and the Law: Notes on Possible Pathologies," by Kaushik Basu (WP 2052, December 2004, .pdf format, 10p.).


The paper demonstrates that the standard policy for controlling child labor imposing a fine on firms caught employing children can cause child labor to rise. This "pathological" reaction is, however, reversed as the size of the fine increases.

Princeton University Center for Health and Wellbeing:

A. "Child Health and Economic Crisis in Peru," by Christina Paxson and Norbert Schady (December 2004, .pdf format, 33p.).


The effect of macroeconomic crises on child health is a topic of great policy importance. We use data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to analyze the impact of a profound crisis in Peru on infant mortality. We show that there was an increase in the infant mortality rate of about 2.5 percentage points for children born during the crisis, implying that about 17,000 more children died than would have in the absence of the crisis. Accounting for the precise source of the increase in infant mortality is difficult, but it appears that the collapse in public and private expenditures on health played an important role.

B. "The Reach and Impact of Child Support Grants: Evidence from KwaZulu-Natal," by Anne Case, Victoria Hosegood, and Frances Lund (December 2004, .pdf format, 29p.).

C. "Health and Wealth Among the Poor: India and South Africa Compared," by Anne Case and Angus Deaton (December 2004, .pdf format, 18p.).

D. "The Impact of Parental Death on School Enrollment and Achievement: Longitudinal Evidence from South Africa," by Anne Case and Cally Ardington (December 2004, .pdf format, 38p.).


We analyze longitudinal data from a demographic surveillance area (DSA) in KwaZulu-Natal, to examine the impact of parental death on children's outcomes. We find significant differences in the impact of mothers' and fathers' deaths. The loss of a child's mother is a strong predictor of poor schooling outcomes. Maternal orphans are significantly less likely to be enrolled in school, and have completed significantly fewer years of schooling, conditional on age, than children whose mothers are alive. Less money is spent on their educations on average, conditional on enrollment. Moreover, children whose mothers have died appear to be at an educational disadvantage when compared to non-orphaned children with whom they live. We use the timing of mothers' deaths relative to children's educational shortfalls to argue that mothers' deaths have a causal effect on children's educations. The loss of a child's father is a significant predictor of household socioeconomic status. Children whose fathers have died live in significantly poorer households, measured on a number of dimensions. However, households in which fathers died were poor prior to fathers' deaths. The death of a father between waves of the survey has no significant effect on subsequent household economic status. While the loss of a father is correlated with poorer educational outcomes, this correlation arises because a father's death is a marker that the household is poor. Evidence from the South African 2001 Census suggests that the estimated effects of maternal deaths on children's school attendance and attainment in the Africa Centre DSA reflect the reality for orphans throughout South Africa.

Princeton University Education Research Section: "Do Returns to Schooling Differ by Race and Ethnicity?" by Lisa Barrow and Cecilia Elena Rouse (Working Paper No. 11, January 2005, .pdf format, 33p.).

Yale University Economic Growth Center:

A. "Demographic Determinants of Savings: Estimating and Interpreting the Aggregate Association in Asia," by T. Paul Schultz (WP 901, December 2004, .pdf format, 37p.).


Life cycle savings is proposed as one explanation for much of the increase in savings and economic growth in Asia. The association between the age composition of a nation's population and its savings rate, observed within 16 Asian countries from 1952 to 1992, is re-estimated here to be less than a quarter the size reported in a seminal study, which assumed lagged savings is exogenous. Specification tests as well as common sense imply, moreover, that lagged savings is likely to be endogenous, and when estimated accordingly there remains no significant dependence of savings on the age composition, measured in several ways. Research should consider lifetime savings as a substitute for children, and model the causes for the decline in fertility which changes the age compositions and could thereby account for savings and growth in Asia.

B. "Risk, Network Quality, and Family Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso," by Richard Akresh (WP 902, January 2005, .pdf format, 42p.).


Researchers often assume household structure is exogenous, but child fostering, the institution in which parents send their biological children to live with another family, is widespread in sub- Saharan Africa and provides evidence against this assumption. Using data I collected in Burkina Faso, I analyze a household's decision to adjust its size and composition through fostering. A household fosters children as a risk-coping mechanism in response to exogenous income shocks, if it has a good social network, and to satisfy labor demands within the household. Increases of one standard deviation in a household's agricultural shock, percentage of good network members, or number of older girls increase the probability of sending a child above the current fostering level by 29.1, 30.0, and 34.5 percent, respectively. Testing whether factors influencing the sending decision have an opposite impact on the receiving decision leads to a rejection of the symmetric, theoretical model for child fostering.

C. "Productive Benefits of Health: Evidence from Low-Income Countries," by T. Paul Schultz (WP 903, January 2005, .pdf format, 30p.).


Various household survey indicators of adult nutrition and health status are analyzed as determinants of individual wages. However, survey indicators of health status may be heterogeneous, or a combination of health human capital formed by investment behavior and variation due to genotype, random shocks, and measurement error, which are uncontrolled by behavior. Although there are no definitive methods for distinguishing between human capital and genetic variation in health outcomes, alternative mappings of health status, such as height, on community health services, parent socioeconomic characteristics, and ethnic categories may be suggestive. Instrumental variable estimates of health human capital and residual sources of variation in measured health status are included in wage functions to assess empirically whether the productivity of both components of health are equal. Evidence from Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire and Brazil suggests that the health human capital effect on wages is substantially larger than that associated with residual health variation.

Luxembourg Income Study: "Production of Last Resort Support: A Comparison on Social Assistance Schemes in Europe with the Notion of Welfare Production and the Concept of Social Right," by Susan Kuivalainen (Working Paper No. 397, December 2005, .pdf format, 22p.).


This paper aims to assess the present social assistance schemes with the model of production of welfare and the concept of social right. The interest is in how different stages of social assistance schemes are linked and how schemes appear when a number of indicators are used. One of the aspects analysed are outcomes, i.e. the prevalence of poverty and the poverty reduction effectiveness. To analyse outcomes the LIS data are used. Six different countries are included into comparison. The findings show that the countries vary to a large extent in their effectiveness of reducing poverty. Further, they indicated that there is some relationship between inputs, outputs and outcomes. Countries with more extensive social security scheme have less extent social assistance schemes. The results indicated also that the countries with less extensive social assistance schemes provide more generous levels of support, while also simultaneously the more generous schemes have smaller prevalence of poverty.

Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) [University of Bonn, Germany]:

A. "Pupil Achievement, School Resources and Family Background," by Torbjorn Haegeland, Oddbjorn Raaum, Kjell G. Salvanes (Discussion Paper 1459, January 2005, .pdf format, 27p.).


Whether increasing resource use in schools has a positive effect on pupil performance has occupied governments, parents and researchers for decades. A main challenge when trying to answer this question is to separate the effects of school resources from the effects of pupils' family background, since resources may be allocated in a compensatory manner, and pupils may sort into schools. We address these issues using a comprehensive dataset for two cohorts of pupils graduating from lower secondary school in Norway. The dataset is rich in performance measures, resource use variables and family background variables. As performance measures we use results at age 16 across 11 subjects, and we exploit the fact that we have both information from results from national exams and from continuous assessment in class. Controlling for family background, we find a positive but modest effect of resource quantity such as teacher hours per pupil, on pupil achievement. Observable teacher qualifications, within the variation present in lower secondary school in Norway, do not appear to have significant effects on school results. Resource quality as measured by teacher characteristics does not appear to have a significant impact on pupils' marks. We find clear evidence of compensating resource allocation and teacher sorting as well as relative setting of marks.

B. "Health Care Expenditures in OECD Countries: A Panel Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis," by Christian Dreger and Hans-Eggert Reimers (Discussion Paper 1469, January 2005, .pdf format, 20p.).


This paper investigates the link between health care expenditures and GDP for a sample of 21 OECD countries using recent developed panel cointegration techniques. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis accounts for the fact that health care expenditures are not only determined by income. The other driving force is medical progress, which is proxied by different variables, like life expectancy, infant mortality and the share of the elderly. In the extended models, a cointegration relationship can be established among the variables. The income elasticity is not different from unity, implying that health care expenditures are not a luxury good. This finding is robust for alternative measures of medical progress. The evidence is unchanged, if alternative estimators of the cointegration vector are used. Controlling for cross section dependency does not affect the principal results, as cointegration can be found even in a model among non-stationary common factors.

Department of Economics, University of York [UK]: "Reporting Bias and Heterogeneity in Self-Assessed Health. Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey," by Cristina Hernandez-Quevedo, Andrew M. Jones, and Nigel Rice (WP 2004/18, 2004, .pdf format, 30p.).


This paper explores reporting bias and heterogeneity in the measure of self-assessed health (SAH) used in the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The ninth wave of the BHPS includes the SF-36 general health questionnaire, which incorporates a different wording to the self-assessed health variable used at other waves. Considerable attention has been devoted to the reliability of SAH and the scope for contamination by measurement error; the change in wording at wave 9 provides a form of natural experiment that allows us to assess the sensitivity of panel data analyses to a change in the measurement instrument. In particular, we investigate reporting bias due explicitly to the change in the question. We show how progressively more general specifications of reporting bias can be implemented using panel data ordered probit and generalised ordered probit models. Our results suggest that the distribution of SAH does shift at the ninth wave but there is little evidence that this varies with socio-economic characteristics at an individual level.

Click on "download the selected file" for full text.

National Institute for Economic and Social Research [UK]: "Fiscal Implications of Demographic Uncertainty for the United Kingdom," by James Sefton and Martin Weale (NIESR Discussion Paper No. 250, January 2005, .pdf format, 32p.).


We assess the implications of demographic uncertainty for the United Kingdom's fiscal position. We construct stochastic population projections and then use the framework provided by generational accounts to project government revenues and expenditures. We present stochastic paths for the budget balance over time and also evaluate the frequency distribution of the increase in taxes needed to deliver fiscal solvency.

School of Economics, Finance, and Management, University of Bristol [UK]: "Birth Spacing and Neonatal Mortality in India: Dynamics, Frailty and Fecundity," by Sonia Bhalotra and Arthur van Soest (WP 04/567, December 2005, .pdf format, 42p.)


A dynamic panel data model of neonatal mortality and birth spacing is analyzed, accounting for causal effects of birth spacing on subsequent mortality and of mortality on the next birth interval, while controlling for unobserved heterogeneity in mortality (frailty) and birth spacing (fecundity). The model is estimated using micro data on about 30000 children of 7000 Indian mothers, for whom a complete retrospective record of fertility and child mortality is available. Information on sterilization is used to identify an equation for completion of family formation that is needed to account for right-censoring in the data. We find clear evidence of frailty, fecundity, and causal effects of birth spacing on mortality and vice versa, but find that birth interval effects can explain only a limited share of the correlation between neonatal mortality of successive children in a family.

Centre for European Labour Market Studies (CELMS), Economics Department, Goteborg University [Sweden]: "Does Job Loss Shorten Life?" by Marcus Eliason and Donald Storrie (December 2004, .pdf format, 26p.).


We examine whether there is a causal relationship from job displacement to mortality. The study is based on employees who lost their job from all establishment closures in 1987 and 1988 in Sweden and, as a control group, a large random sample of employees not experiencing displacement at that time. The registers follow all these individuals, between 1983 and 2000 with minimal attrition. They also provide much relevant information on individual, family and establishment characteristics, and pre-displacement health and labor market history. Using propensity score matching, we find higher mortality among the displaced up to the eighth follow-up year, mainly due to suicide and heart diseases. Estimates of all-cause mortality risk show significant effects for displaced men, but not for women, up to nine years after displacement. An important methodological conclusion is that research that focuses only on those who leave late in the closure process may over-state the impact of displacement on mortality.

World Bank Policy Research Program:

A. "Child Labor, School Attendance, and Indigenous Households: Evidence from Mexico," by Harry Anthony Patrinos, Rosangela Bando, and Luis F. Lopez-Calva (Working Paper 3487, January 2005, .pdf format, 44p.).


The authors use panel data for Mexico for 1997 to 1999 to test several assumptions regarding the impact of a conditional cash transfer program on child labor, emphasizing the differential impact on indigenous households. Using data from the conditional cash transfer program in Mexico--PROGRESA (OPORTUNIDADES)--they investigate the interaction between child labor and indigenous households. While indigenous children had a greater probability of working in 1997, this probability is reversed after treatment in the program. Indigenous children also had lower school attainment compared with Spanish-speaking or bilingual children. After the program, school attainment among indigenous children increased, reducing the gap.

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B. "Environmental Factors and Children's Malnutrition in Ethiopia," by Patricia Silva (Working Paper 3489, January 2005, .pdf format, 33p.).


Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. A considerable effort to monitor child malnutrition rates over the past two decades shows that, despite some improvements, approximately half of the children under five are still malnourished. Much of the burden of deaths resulting from malnutrition, estimated to be over half of childhood deaths in developing countries, can be attributed to mild or moderate malnutrition. Several biological and social economic factors contribute to malnutrition. Using the 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data, Silva examines the impact of access to basic environmental services, such as water and sanitation, on the probability children are stunted and underweight. She focuses on the impact of externalities associated with access to these services. The author finds that biological factors (such as child's age and mother's height) and social economic factors (such as household wealth and mother's education) are important determinants of a child's nutritional status. This is consistent with the findings of most studies in the literature. With respect to the environmental factors, the author finds that there are indeed significant externalities associated with access to water and sanitation at the community level. The external impacts at the community level of access to these services are an important determinant of the probability a child is underweight. The results also show that the external impact of access to water is larger for children living in rural areas.

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C. "Well-Being during a Time of Change: Timor-Leste on the Path to Independence," by Kaspar Richter (Working Paper 3488, January 2005, .pdf format, 37p.).


Countries undergoing fundamental economic and political transformations might experience differential adjustments in material well-being and empowerment. Richter evaluates self-rated welfare and power changes in Timor-Leste covering the period prior to the 1999 referendum on independence from Indonesia to the eve of independence in end 2001. Drawing on the first nationally representative household survey and village census, he shows how subjective, objective, and recall information can be combined to provide a rich profile of trends in well-being from the pre- to post-conflict stage. The author's analysis shows that changes in self-rated welfare and power broadly corresponded to changes recorded by objective indicators. While economic well-being improved little, empowerment increased dramatically. The changes were not uniform across the population but some groups benefited more than others. The evidence for Timor-Leste is consistent with these hypotheses: Economic resources increase welfare, and more than power; Social resources increase power, and more than welfare; Welfare winners have low initial economic resources; Power winners have high social resources; and Economic shocks reduce welfare and power, but welfare more than power.

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D. "Roads Out of Poverty? Assessing the Links between Aid, Public Investment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction," by Pierre-Richard Agenor, Karim El Aynaoui, and Nihal Bayraktar (Working Paper 3490, January 2005, .pdf format, 75p.).


Agenor, Bayraktar, and El Aynaoui develop a macroeconomic framework that captures links between aid, public investment, growth, and poverty. Public investment is disaggregated into education, infrastructure, and health, and affects both aggregate supply and demand. Dutch disease effects are captured by accounting for changes in the relative price of domestic goods. The authors assess the impact of policy shocks on poverty by linking the model to a household survey. They calibrate the model for Ethiopia and simulate the changes in the allocation of aid and public investment. The authors also calculate the amount by which foreign aid should increase to reach the poverty targets of the Millennium Development Goals.

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E. "What Factors Influence World Literacy? Is Africa Different?" by Dorte Verner (Working Paper 3496, January 2005, .pdf format, 25p.).


Ninety-five percent of the world's illiterate people live in developing countries, and about 70 percent are women. Female illiteracy rates are particularly high in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Niger and Burkina Faso, for example, more than 90 percent of women are illiterate. This paper presents a model of literacy. It shows that the main determinants of worldwide literacy are enrollment rates, average years of schooling of adults, and life expectancy at birth. Income has a weak nonlinear effect, negatively affecting literacy until a threshold level of per-capita income of about $2,200 a year is reached and positively affecting literacy thereafter. Finally, African countries do not have a significantly higher literacy rate when controlling for other factors.

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Economics Working Paper Archive, Washington University at St. Louis: "Women Status in Pakistan under Customs and Values & The Controversial Hudood Ordinance 1979," by Rana Riaz Saeed (December 2004, .pdf format, 9p.).

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Reseau Esperance de Vie en Sante (REVES): "The 17th meeting of REVES will be held in Beijing, China, on May 18-20, 2005. For more information about the meeting, see:

More information on REVES:

Note: Cancel any request to download a non-English language character set. This announcement is in English.

Association of Survey Computing: "Mobile Computing," a conference to be held Apr. 22, 2005 at the Imperial College, London, UK. For more information about the conference, as well as a call for papers, see:

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Population Reference Bureau: PRB has announced several funding and employment opportunities at its website. For more information see:

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Senate Governmental Affairs Hearing Publication: "Juvenile Detention Centers: Are They Warehousing Children with Mental Illness?" a hearing held Jul. 7, 2004 (Senate Hearing 108-696, ASCII text and .pdf format, 118p.).

Type "108-696" (WITH the quotes) into the Quick Search box.

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Census Bureau:

A. American FactFinder Update: Census Bureau's American FactFinder web based extractor has recently added Census Summary File 1 and 3 retabulated for "the newly drawn 109th Congressional District boundaries."

Scroll to or "find in page" "109th Congressional District Summary File" (without the quotes).

B. State and County QuickFacts now includes data for cities and towns with more than 25,000 people. For more information see:

Carolina Population Center China Health and Nutrition Survey: CHNS now offers longitudinal data: "22 new datasets known as CHNS Longitudinal Master Files are now available. These new master files are designed to make longitudinal analysis of the CHNS Survey data much easier. The new master files consolidate and standardize data from multiple survey years into a select number of master files." Note: A data use agreement must be signed before data is made available.

National Center for Education Statistics: "NCES has just added to its website the SASS and TFS Questionnaire Item Bank. This Item Bank contains publicly available Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS) information from 1987 -present. Weighted data are only available from 2000 onward. Continuous (as opposed to discrete) data are also available from 2000 onward. Get information from any of the 47 surveys, or group surveys by using a selection filter to search for items and their associated responses." Keyword searching is also available.

Bureau of Labor Statistics:

A. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: The Bureau of Labor Statistics has released "NLSY79 2002 Child/Young Adult Data Users Guide" (2005, .pdf format, 287p.).

B. "America Time-Use Survey: 2003" (HTML, ASCII text, and .pdf format, 20p.).

ATUS Data Files:

Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR): ICPSR at the University of Michigan has recently released the following datasets, which may be of interest to demography researchers. Note: Some ICPSR studies are available only to ICPSR member institutions. To find out whether your organization is a member, and whether or not it supports ICPSR Direct downloading, see:

Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 2001 Panel (#3894)

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study [United States]: Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, Third Grade (#4075)

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Jack Solock
Data Librarian--Center for Demography and Ecology
4470 Social Science University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706