Current Demographic Research Report #69, February 7, 2005.

CDERR (Current Demographic Research Reports) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. This report will contain selected listings of new: reports, articles, bibliographies, working papers, tables of contents, conferences, data, and websites. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


Index to this issue:


Census Bureau Facts for Features, Report, Compendia
National Institutes of Health News Release
Department of Health and Human Services Report
World Health Organization Periodical, Feature
Health Council of Canada Report
UNESCAP Periodical
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Report
Government Printing Office Compendium
National Center for Education Statistics Report
Bureau of Labor Statistics Periodical, News Releases, Reports
DHHS OASPE Issue Brief
US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Miscellaneous
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Statistical Brief
Roper Center Public Opinion Matters
Kaiser Family Foundation Factsheets, Issue Brief
National Academies Press Monograph
Info Health Pop. Reporter
NLS Bibliography Updates


California Center for Population Research (UCLA)
National Bureau of Economic Research
Brookings Institution Center on Social and Economic Dynamics
Princeton University Center for Research on Child Wellbeing
Penn Institute for Economic Research
Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
London School of Economics Research Center for Analysis of Social Exclusion
World Bank Development Programme


Other Journals


Integrated Public Use Microdata Systems
World Bank Living Standards and Measurement Study
National Center for Education Statistics



Census Bureau Facts for Features, Report, Compendia:

A. "Women's History Month (March)" (CB05-FF.04, Jan. 31, 2005, HTML and .pdf format, 3p.).



Other Facts for Features:

B. "Advance Report on Characteristics of Employer Business Owners: 2002" (February 2005). The report is linked to from a Census Bureau news release: "Census Bureau Provides First Glimpse at the Characteristics of U.S. Business Owners" (CB05-13, Feb. 2, 2005).

C. "American Housing Survey: 2003." The American Housing Survey has released six metro area reports for 2003: "Detroit, Los Angeles-Long Beach, Northern New Jersey, Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York-Nassau-Suffolk-Orange (all December 2004, .pdf format). "Provides data on housing and household characteristics from the American Housing Survey. Data is presents on the total housing inventory including new construction and vacant units; on total occupied housing units; on owner-occupied housing units; on renter-occupied housing units; on occupied housing units with a Black householder, and on occupied housing units with householder of Hispanic origin. In addition, the report covers such subjects as: data on external building conditions; number of rooms; complete bathrooms; kitchen and laundry equipment; main heating equipment; fuel used for heating, cooking, and central air-conditioning; plumbing equipment and failures; and opinions of the structure and neighborhood."

National Institutes of Health News Releases:

A. "NIH Calls on Scientists to Speed Public Release of Research Publications" (Feb. 3, 2005).

B. "NIH Announces Sweeping Ethics Reform" (Feb. 1, 2005).

Department of Health and Human Services Report: "Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition" (DHHS, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, January 2005, .pdf format). The report is linked to from a National Institutes of Health news release: "List of Cancer-Causing Agents Grows" (Jan. 31, 2005).

Direct link:

Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Reports:

A. "Stimulant Use: 2003" (National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), February 2005, HTML and .pdf format, 3p.).

B. "Trends in Cocaine Treatment Admissions by State: 1992-2002" (Drug and Alcohol Services Information System (DASIS), February 2005, HTML and .pdf format, 3p.).

World Health Organization Periodical, Feature:

A. _Bulletin of the World Health Organization_ (Vol. 18, No. 2, February 2005, .pdf format).

Note: _BWHOs_ back to 1947 are always available at:

B. "Great Expectations" Update: WHO's "Great Expectations" website (discussed in CDERR #51, Sep. 27, 2004 ( has been updated to include the story of the women at the time of birth.

Health Council of Canada Report: "Health Care Renewal in Canada: Accelerating Change" (January 2005, .pdf format, 95p.).

Click on "Download Report" on the left side of the page.

More information on HCC:

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Periodical: _Statistical Indicators for Asia and the Pacific_ (Vol. XXXIV, No. 4, December 2004, .pdf format).

Click on "View Full Text".

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Report: "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2005" (January 2005, .pdf format, 120p.). "The continued recovery of the world economy resulted in unusually widespread growth in 2004, but a modest slowdown in all regions is expected in 2005, according to projections contained in World Economic Situation and Prospects 2005 (WESP 2005). Developing countries grew at the fastest rate in two decades in 2004. In addition to the stimulus provided by the United States, China is making an increasing contribution to global economic growth. Its rapid expansion has contributed to increased global demand for oil and many non-oil commodities, with the higher prices for the latter being of particular benefit to several countries in Africa and Latin America. Overall, prospects continue to be good, but the global imbalances pose a potential threat, to which a global response is required."

Click on "Download Full Report" on the left side of the page for full text.

Government Printing Office Compendium: _Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 2006_ (February 2005, .pdf and Microsoft Excel format).

National Center for Education Statistics Report: "Public Elementary and Secondary Students, Staff, Schools, and School Districts: School Year 2002-03," by Lee Hoffman, Jennifer Sable, Julia Naum, and Dell Gray (NCES 2005314, February 2005, .pdf format, 83p.).


This report contains data from the Common Core of Data (CCD) non-fiscal 2002-03 state, local education agency, and school surveys. The report presents data about the students enrolled in public education, including the number of students by grade and the number receiving special education, migrant, or English language learner services. Some tables disaggregate the student data by racial/ethnic group or community characteristics such as rural - urban. The numbers and types of teachers, other education staff, schools, and local education agencies are also reported.

Bureau of Labor Statistics Periodical, News Releases, Reports:

A. _Monthly Labor Review_ (Vol. 128, No. 1, January 2005, .pdf format).

Note: This is a temporary address. When the next _MLR_ is released, this one, along with all others back to 1983, will be available at:

B. "Multifactor productivity trends, 2002" (Feb. 1, 2005, HTML, ASCII text, and .pdf format, 17p.).

C. "Planned Changes to the Current Employment Survey" (Jan. 31, 2005, HTML format, with links to relevant reports in .pdf format).

D. "Current Employment Statistics Highlights: January 2005 (February 2005, .pdf format, 10p.).

E. "Employment from the BLS household and payroll surveys: summary of recent trends" (February 2005, .pdf format, 16p.).

Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation Issue Brief: "Receipt of Unemployment Insurance Among Low-Income Single Mothers" (ASPE Issue Brief, January 2005, HTML and .pdf format, 14p.).

US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service/Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University Report, ERS Periodical Article:

A. "The Role of Education: Promoting the Economic and Social Vitality of Rural America," edited by Lionel J. Beaulieu and Robert Gibbs (January, 2005, .pdf format, 72p.). "This 72-page full-color publication is the result of more than three years of research conducted in partnership by the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), the USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) and the Rural School and Community Trust. It offers insight into the important and often fragile relationship between rural schools and communities in America. The report comprises nine articles divided into three area-specific sections: (1) Education, Human Capital and the Local Economy, (2) Links between Rural Schools and Communities and (3) Creating Successful Rural Schools and Students.

B. "The Price is Right: Economics and the Rise in Obesity," by Jayachandran N. Variyam (_Amber Waves_, February 2005, HTML and .pdf format, p. 20-27).

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Statistical Brief: "The Long-Term Uninsured in America, 2001 to 2002: Estimates for the U.S. Population under Age 65," by Jeffrey A. Rhoades (Statistical Brief #67, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, January 2005, .pdf format, 5p.).


Using data from the Household Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS-HC) for 2001 and 2002, this report provides estimates of the proportion of the civilian noninstitutionalized non-elderly (under age 65) population that was uninsured for up to two years, 2001 to 2002, and identifies groups especially at risk of lacking health insurance.

Roper Center Public Opinion Matters: The latest issue of "Public Opinion Matters" (Roper Center, University of Connecticut), concerns public opinion on Terrorism. Included are selected questions from Roper's 400,000 question iPOLL database, as well as links to selected relevant articles and Roper surveys.;start=HS_special_topics?Topic=terrorism

Kaiser Family Foundation Factsheets, Issue Brief:

A. "African Americans and HIV/AIDS - UPDATE" (February 2005, .pdf format, 2p.).

B. "Latinos and HIV/AIDS" (February 2005, .pdf format, 2p.).

C. "The Effects of Electronic Media on Children Ages Zero to Six: A History of Research -- Issue Brief" (January 2005, .pdf format, 16p.).

Click on "Issue Brief" at the bottom of the page for full text.

National Academies Press Monograph: _Public Health Risks of Disasters: Communication, Infrastructure, and Preparedness_, edited by William Hooke and Paul G. Rogers (Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine, National Research Council, 2005 OpenBook format, 88p.). Note: Ordering information for a print or .pdf format version is available at the site.

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Communication Programs Compendium: Info Health Pop. Reporter (Vol. 5, No. 5 Feb. 7, 2005). "The Johns Hopkins University Population Information Program delivers the reproductive health and family planning news you need. Each week our research staff prepares an electronic magazine loaded with links to key news stories, reports, and related developments around the globe."

NLS Bibliography Updates: Note: These citations, along with all of the NLS bibliography, can be found at:

Note: Where available, direct links to full text have been provided. These references represent updated citations from Jan. 17, 2004 - Feb. 4, 2005.

For more information on any of these citations (selected abstracts are available) go to the above listed address and click on "Title List". Click on the first item, which while give the syntax of the citation urls:[0]=320

Then change the number after the equal sign (320 in this case) to the number listed as the "ID Number" in the citations below. You will be taken to the full citation listing.

Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behaviors, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers
Working Paper, Johns Hopkins University, January 2005. Also,
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4817
Publisher: Author

The Long-Term Effects of Early and Recent Maternal Employment on a Child's Academic Achievement
Journal of Family Issues 25, 1 (2004): 29-60
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
ID Number: 4818
Publisher: Sage Publications

The Effects of Employment while Pregnant on Health at Birth
Working Paper: Middle Tennessee State University, Department of Economics and
Finance Working Paper Series, September 2004. Also,
Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4820
Publisher: Department of Economics and Finance MTSU

Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior
Review of Economics of the Household 2, 4 (2004): 413-441
Cohort(s): NLSY97
ID Number: 4821
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers

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California Center for Population Research (UCLA): "The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Children's Education," by Sandra Black, Paul Devereux, and Kjell Salvanes (WP CCPR-001-05, January 2005, .pdf format, 42p.).


There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a tradeoff between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. While we find a negative correlation between family size and children's education, when we include indicators for birth order and/or use twin births as an instrument, family size effects become negligible. In addition, birth order has a significant and large negative effect on children's education. We also study adult earnings, employment, and teenage childbearing, and find strong evidence for birth order effects with these outcomes, particularly among women. These findings suggest the need to revisit economic models of fertility and child "production", focusing not only on differences across families but differences within families as well.

Click on "Full Text" at the bottom of the abstract for full text.

National Bureau of Economic Research:

A. "Residential Segregation in General Equilibrium," by Patrick Bayer, Robert McMillan, Kim Rueben (w11095, January 2005, .pdf format, 57p.).


Black households in the United States with high levels of income and education (SES) typically face a stark tradeoff when deciding where to live. They can choose neighborhoods with high levels of public goods or a high proportion of blacks, but very few neighborhoods combine both, a fact we document clearly. In the face of this constraint, we conjecture that racial sorting may dramatically lower the consumption of local public goods by high-SES blacks. To shed light on this, we estimate a model of residential sorting using unusually detailed restricted Census microdata, then use the estimated preferences to simulate a counterfactual world in which racial factors play no role in household residential location decisions. Results from this exercise provide the first evidence that sorting on the basis of race gives rise to significant reductions in the consumption of local public goods by black and high-SES black households in particular. These consumption effects lead to significant losses of welfare and are likely to have important intergenerational implications.

Click on PDF or submit your email address for full text.

B. "Stemming the Tide? The Effect of Expanding Medicaid Eligibility on Health Insurance," by Lara D. Shore-Sheppard (w11091, January 2005, .pdf format, 40p.).


Despite considerable research, there is little consensus about the impact of Medicaid eligibility expansions for low-income children. In this paper, I reexamine the expansions' impact on Medicaid take-up and private insurance "crowd-out." Focusing on the most influential estimates of the expansions' impact, I show that while many of the critiques leveled at these estimates have little effect on their magnitude, accounting for age-specific trends in coverage produces estimates similar to others in the literature. Estimating the impact of later expansions using additional years of data, I find low rates of take-up and no evidence of crowding out.

Click on PDF or submit your email address for full text.

C. "Why Has Black-White Skill Convergence Stopped?" by Derek Neal (w11090, January 2005, .pdf format, 75p.).


All data sources indicate that black-white skill gaps diminished over most of the 20th century, but black-white skill gaps as measured by test scores among youth and educational attainment among young adults have remained constant or increased in absolute value since the late 1980s. I examine the potential importance of discrimination against skilled black workers, changes in black family structures, changes in black household incomes, black-white differences in parenting norms, and education policy as factors that may contribute to the recent stability of black-white skill gaps. Absent changes in public policy or the economy that facilitate investment in black children, best case scenarios suggest that even approximate black-white skill parity is not possible before 2050, and equally plausible scenarios imply that the black-white skill gap will remain quite significant throughout the 21st century.

Click on PDF or submit your email address for full text.

D. "Federal Oversight, Local Control, and the Specter of "Resegregation" in Southern Schools," by Charles T. Clotfelter, Helen F. Ladd, Jacob L. Vigdor (w11086, January 2005, .pdf format, 54p.).


Analyzing data for the 100 largest school districts in the South and Border states, we ask whether there is evidence of "resegregation" of school districts and whether levels of segregation can be linked to judicial decisions. We distinguish segregation measures indicating the extent of racial isolation from those indicating the degree of racial imbalance across schools. For the period 1994 to 2004 the trend in only one measure of racial isolation is consistent with the hypothesis that districts in these regions are resegregating. Yet the increase in this measure appears to be driven by the general increase in the nonwhite percentage in the student population rather than policy-determined increases in racial imbalance. Racial imbalance itself shows no trend over this period. Racial imbalance is nevertheless associated with judicial declarations of unitary status, suggesting that segregation in schools might have declined had it not been for the actions of federal courts. This estimated relationship is subject to a lag, which is in keeping with the tendency for courts to grant unitary status only if districts agree to limit their own freedom to reassign students.

Click on PDF or submit your email address for full text.

Brookings Institution Center on Social and Economic Dynamics: "Does Inequality Matter to Individual Welfare? An Initial Exploration Based on Happiness Surveys from Latin America," by Carol Graham and Andrew Felton (CSED Working Paper No. 38, January 2005, .pdf format, 41p.).


The effect of inequality on individual welfare remains a debated question in economics. A common explanation for these mixed findings is that in Europe and the U.S., inequality can be a signal of income mobility and opportunity as much as it is a signal of injustice. This paper explores the effects of relative income differences, as well as of inequality more broadly defined, on well being in Latin America, the region with the highest inequality in the world. We find that relative income differences have large and consistent effects on well being in the region. Inequality makes those in the highest quintiles roughly 5% happier than the average and those in the poorest quintile 3% less happy, regardless of differences in wealth levels within and across these groups. Our findings support the importance of relative differences in these realms to well being, and suggest that they may be even more important than income-based differences. Inequality and perceived inequality also play a mediating role in the effects of unemployment on well being. In Latin America, inequality seems to be a signal of persistent advantage for the very wealthy and persistent disadvantage for the poor, rather than a signal of future opportunities.

Click on "Read the Paper" for full text.

Princeton University Center for Research on Child Wellbeing: "Children's Elevated Risk of Asthma in Unmarried Families: Underlying Structural and Behavioral Mechanisms," by Kristen Harknett (WP 2005-01-FF, February 2005, .pdf format, 33p.).


Among a recent birth cohort in U.S. cities, children were far more likely to be diagnosed with asthma and to experience an asthma-related emergency within 15 months of their birth if their parents were unmarried. Comparing babies born to parents who were married, cohabiting, and not living together at the time of their baby's birth reveals a "family structure gradient:" asthma diagnoses and emergencies increase in a linear fashion as the parents' relationship becomes weaker. This paper uses longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to provide evidence on the mechanisms underlying the relationship between family structure and children's asthma. I find that demographic and socioeconomic correlates of marriage explain asthma differences between children of married and cohabiting parents. However, children whose parents live apart appear to be at heightened risk of being diagnosed with asthma and experiencing an asthma-related emergency even after taking into account demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Mother's health behavior explains a relatively small portion of family structure differences in asthma, and father involvement makes no difference in children's asthma diagnosis or emergencies.

Penn Institute for Economic Research: "Using Hit Rates to Test for Racial Bias in Law Enforcement: Vehicle Searches in Wichita," by Nicola Persico and Petra Todd (PIER Working Paper 05-004, January 2005, .pdf format, 32p.).


This paper considers the use of outcomes-based tests for detecting racial bias in the context of police searches of motor vehicles. It shows that the test proposed in Knowles, Persico and Todd (2001) can also be applied in a more general environment where police officers are heterogeneous in their tastes for discrimination and in their costs of search and motorists are heterogeneous in their benefits and costs from criminal behavior. We characterize the police and motorist decision problems in a game theoretic framework and establish properties of the equilibrium. We also extend of the model to the case where drivers' characteristics are mutable in the sense that drivers can adapt some of their characteristics to reduce the probability of being monitored. After developing the theory that justifies the application of outcomes- based tests, we apply the tests to data on police searches of motor vehicles gathered by the Wichita Police department. The empirical findings are consistent with the
notion that police in Wichita choose their search strategies to maximize successful searches, and not out of racial bias.

Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) (University of Bonn, Germany): "Productive Benefits of Health: Evidence from Low-Income Countries," by T. Paul Schultz (Discussion Paper 1482, January 2005, .pdf format, 30p.).


Various household survey indicators of adult nutrition and health status are analyzed as determinants of individual wages. However, survey indicators of health status may be heterogeneous, or a combination of health human capital formed by investment behavior and variation due to genotype, random shocks, and measurement error, which are uncontrolled by behavior. Although there are no definitive methods for distinguishing between human capital and genetic variation in health outcomes, alternative mappings of health status, such as height, on community health services, parent socioeconomic characteristics, and ethnic categories may be suggestive. Instrumental variable estimates of health human capital and residual sources of variation in measured health status are included in wage functions to assess empirically whether the productivity of both components of health are equal. Evidence from Ghana, Cote d' Ivoire and Brazil suggest that the health human capital effect on wages is substantially larger than that associated with residual health variation.

London School of Economics Research Center for Analysis of Social Exclusion: "Teenage Expectations and Desires about Family Formation in the United States," by Robert D. Plotnick (CASE 90, December 2004, .pdf format, 37p.).


Using data collected in 2000 on a racially and ethnically diverse sample of high school seniors (typically 17-18 years old), this study analyzes teenagers' expectations and desires about marriage, having children, and becoming unwed parents. The study is the first to examine all six outcomes with a common conceptual framework and data set. The conceptual framework combines family context, opportunity cost, and social-psychological perspectives. Each perspective has predictive power. Race, ethnicity, gender, type of religious upbringing, parental education, and parental expectations for their child's education are aspects of family context that consistently show significant relationships with expectations and desires. Adolescents with higher opportunity costs-- as indicated by having better grades and higher expectations and aspirations for their schooling--expect and desire to marry and have children at older ages. This finding should be regarded cautiously because there is reason to think that opportunity costs and the outcomes are jointly determined. There is modest empirical support for the social-psychological element of the framework. The study investigates several explanatory variables not considered in previous research--Native American ethnicity, believing in a non-western religion, self-esteem and locus of control--and finds some to be important predictors of expectations and desires about family formation.

World Bank Development Programme: "The Political Economy of Health Services Provision and Access in Brazil," by Andrew Sunil Rajkumar, Maureen L. Cropper, and Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak (WP 3508, February 2005, .pdf format, 44p.).


Mobarak, Rajkumar, and Cropper examine the impact of local politics and government structure on the allocation of publicly subsidized (SUS) health services across municipios (counties) in Brazil, and on the probability that uninsured individuals who require medical attention actually receive access to those health services. Using data from the 1998 PNAD survey they demonstrate that higher per capita levels of SUS doctors, nurses, and clinic rooms increase the probability that an uninsured individual gains access to health services when he or she seeks it. The authors find that an increase in income inequality, an increase in the percentage of the population that votes, and an increase in the percentage of votes going to left-leaning candidates are each associated with higher levels of public health services. The per capita provision of doctors, nurses, and clinics is also greater in counties with a popular local leader and in counties where the county mayor and state governor are politically aligned. Administrative decentralization of health services to the county decreases provision levels and reduces access to services by the uninsured unless it is accompanied by good local governance.

Click on PDF or envelope icon for full text.

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JOURNAL TABLES OF CONTENTS (check your library for availability):

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Journal of Public Health Policy (Vol. 25, No. 3/4, 2004).

Other Journals

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (Vol. 598, No. 1, March 2005).

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Integrated Public Use Microdata Systems: University of Minnesota IPUMS has announced the following change as of Feb. 1, 2005: "Removed the POV2000 variable from the documentation and data. POV2000 was redundant with the IPUMS POVERTY variable. Both variables use the poverty matrix developed by the Social Security Administration in 1964 (and revised twice in the years since). The Office of Management and Budget's Directive 14 prescribes this definition as the official poverty measure for federal agencies to use in their statistical work." For the announcement, plus links to the relevant variables, see:

World Bank Living Standards and Measurement Study: LSMS has announced the availability of Data for Albania 2003. Documentation is available in .pdf format. A data use agreement must be signed before data can be obtained. For more information see:

For information on other LSMS datasets:

National Center for Education Statistics: "State Education Data Profiles". "Search for statewide information in elementary/secondary education, postsecondary education and selected demographics for all states in the U.S. based on data collected and maintained by the National Center for Education Statistics. Besides being able to get state data you will also get data on U.S. averages and the ability to graph the results." Selected data may be downloaded in Microsoft Excel format.

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Jack Solock
Data Librarian--Center for Demography and Ecology
4470 Social Science University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706