Current Demographic Research Report #90, July 6, 2005.

CDERR (Current Demographic Research Reports) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. This report will contain selected listings of new: reports, articles, bibliographies, working papers, tables of contents, conferences, data, and websites. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


CDERR is compiled and edited by John Carlson, Charlie Fiss, and Jack Solock of the University of Wisconsin Center for Demography and Ecology Information Services Center.

Index to this issue:


Census Bureau Report
Centers for Disease Control Articles
National Center for Health Statistics Reports, Bibliography
National Center for Education Statistics Briefs
Bureau of Labor Statistics Periodicals
Bureau of Justice Statistics Brief
Department of Homeland Security Office of Immigration Statistics Report
Internal Revenue Service Report
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Compendium
World Health Organization Report, Periodical
Statistics South Africa Reports
_Demographic Research_ Article
Kaiser Family Foundation Report
_Lancet_ Research Letter Abstract
Info for Health Pop. Reporter


Penn State Population Research Institute
University of Texas Population Research Center
University of Washington Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology
National Bureau of Economic Research
World Bank Development Programme
International Monetary Fund
Institute for the Study of Labor
Institute for Social and Economic Research
Economic Education and Research Consortium
Scandinavian Working Papers in Economics
New Zealand Treasury


Other Journals


Census Bureau
National Center for Health Statistics
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health
General Social Survey [Roper Center]
Panel Study of Income Dynamics Update



Census Bureau Report: "Alternative Poverty Estimates in the United States: 2003," by Joe Dalaker (Consumer Income P60-227, June 2005, .pdf format, 22p.).

Centers for Disease Control Articles:

A. "Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost,and Productivity Losses United States, 1997--2001," (_Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report_, vol. 54, no. 25, July 1, 2005, HTML and .pdf format, p. 625-628).



B. "Update: Influenza Activity --- United States and Worldwide, 2004--05 Season" (_Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report_, vol. 54, no. 25, July 1, 2005, HTML and .pdf format, p. 631-634).



National Center for Health Statistics Reports, Biography:

A. "Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths: Provisional Data for 2004," (National Vital Statistics Report, vol. 53, no. 21, June 28, 2005, .pdf format, 7p.).

B. "Health Insurance Coverage: Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 2004," by Robin A. Cohen and Michael E. Martinez (June 2005, .pdf format, 19p.). The report is linked to from a NCHS news release: "Health Insurance Coverage for Children up in 2004; Number of Uninsured Adults Stable" (Jun. 29, 2005).

Click on "View/download PDF" for full text.

C. "Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data From the 2004 National Health Interview Survey" (June 2005, .pdf format, 95p.).

D. "A Bibliography of Publications from the National Health Interview Survey on Disability (NHIS-D)," by Gerry Hendershot (April 2005, .pdf format, 48p.). "This is a bibliography of 112 publications based on the landmark 1994-1995 NHIS-D."

National Center for Education Statistics Briefs:

A. "Private School Teacher Turnover and Teacher Perceptions of School Organizational Characteristics," by Daniel McGrath and Daniel Princiotta (NCES 2005061, June 2005, .pdf format, 3p.).

B. "Qualifications of Public Secondary School Biology Teachers, 1999-2000," by Daniel McGrath and Emily Holt (NCES 2005081, June 2005, .pdf format, 3p.).

Bureau of Labor Statistics Periodicals:

A. _Monthly Labor Review_ (Vol. 128, No. 6, June 2005, .pdf format).

Note: This is a temporary address. When the next _MLR_ is released this one, along with all others back to 1982, will be available at

B. "Compensation and Working Conditions Online." The latest articles are dated Jun. 29, 2005.

Bureau of Justice Statistics Brief: "Violence by Gang Members, 1993-2003," by Erika Harrell (NCJ 208875, June 2005, .pdf and ASCII text format, tables in zipped Excel format, 2p.).

Department of Homeland Security Office of Immigration Statistics Report: "Legal Permanent Residents: 2004," by Nancy F. Rytina (Jun. 2005, .pdf format, 7p.).

Internal Revenue Service Report: "U.S. Sole Proprietorships: A Gender Comparison, 1985-2000," by Ying Lowrey (Jun. 2005, .pdf format, 17p.).

US Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Report: "Driving Under the Influence among Adult Drivers," (June 2005, .pdf and HTML format, 3p.).

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Compendium: _2005 World Drug Report_ (June 2005, .pdf format). "The World Drug Report 2005 provides one of the most comprehensive overviews of illicit drug trends at the international level. In addition, this year it presents the work of UNODC in two new areas of research. Both aim to provide tools to enrich our understanding of an immensely complex situation: an estimate of the financial value of the world drug market, and the preliminary steps towards the creation of an illicit drug index. The analysis of trends, some going back 10 years or more, is presented in Volume 1. Detailed statistics are presented in Volume 2. Taken together these volumes provide the most up to date view of today's illicit drug situation.

World Health Organization Report, Periodical:

A. "Progress on Global Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy: An Update on '3by5' (WHO and UNAIDS, June 2005, .pdf format 31p.). The report is linked to from a WHO news release: "Access to HIV treatment continues to accelerate in developing countries, but bottlenecks persist, says WHO/UNAIDS report."

Click on "Download Report" for link to full text.

More information on the 3 by 5 initiative:

B. _Bulletin of the World Health Organization_ (Vol. 83, No. 7, July 2005, HTML and .pdf format).

Statistics South Africa Reports:

A. "Marriages and divorces 2001" (June 2005, Report No. 03-07-01 (2001), .pdf format, 156p. ).

B. "General Household Survey, July 2004" (June 2005, P0318, .pdf format, 77p.). This, along with selected other GHS reports, is available at:

_Demographic Research_ Article: Note: _DR_ is a free, expedited, peer-reviewed journal of the population sciences published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research" [Rostock, Germany]. "Geographical diversity of cause-of-death patterns and trends in Russia," by Jacques Vallin, Vladimir Shkolnikov, Evgueni Andreev, and France Meslé (vol. 12, no. 13, June 2005, .pdf format, p. 323-380).


This paper performs a systematic analysis of all currently available Russian data on mortality by region, census year (1970, 1979, 1989, and 1994) and cause of death. It investigates what links may be found between these geographical variations in cause-specific mortality, the negative general trends observed since 1965, and the wide fluctuations of the last two decades. For that, four two-year periods of observation were selected where it was possible to calculate fairly reliable mortality indicators by geographic units using census data for 1970, 1979, 1989, and micro-census data for 1994, and used a clustering model.

Behind the complexity of the studied universe, three main conclusions appeared. Firstly, in European Russia, there is a stark contrast between south-west and north-east, both in terms of total mortality and of cause-of-death patterns. Secondly, analysis of overall cause-of-death patterns for all periods combined clearly confirms that contrast at the whole country level by the prolongation of the southern part of European Russia through the continuation of the black soil ("chernoziom") belt along the Kazakhstan border, while the rest of Siberia presents a radically different picture to European Russia. Thirdly, while it is difficult to infer any permanent geographical pattern of mortality from that very fluctuating piece of history, 1988-89 appears to be a base period for at least the entire period from 1969-1994.

Kaiser Family Foundation Report: "National Survey of the Public's Views About Medicaid" (June, 2005, .pdf format, chartpack, 23p., survey toplines, 19p.). "This national survey of the public reveals that Americans view the Medicaid program positively and are reluctant to see state and federal cuts to the program. The survey also asked the public about their knowledge of the Medicaid program."

_Lancet_ Research Letter Abstract: "Sex work, drug use, HIV infection, and spread of sexually transmitted infections in Moscow, Russian Federation," by A. Shakarishvili, L.K. Dubovskaya, L.S. Zohrabyan, J.S. St. Lawrence, S.O. Aral, L.G. Dugasheva, S.A. Okan, J.S. Lewis, K.A. Parker, and C.A. Ryan (Vol. 366, No. 9479, Jul. 2, 2005, p. 57-60).

Info for Health Pop. Reporter: Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Communication Programs Compendium: Info Health Pop. Reporter (vol. 5, no. 27, Jul. 5, 2005). "The Johns Hopkins University Population Information Program delivers the reproductive health and family planning news you need. Each week our research staff prepares an electronic magazine loaded with links to key news stories, reports, and related developments around the globe."

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Penn State Population Research Institute: "Mass Media, Gender, and Contraception in Nepal," by Prem Bhandari and Sundar Shyam Shrestha (WP 05-04, July 2005, .pdf format, 40p.).


Using 1996 data from the western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, we examined the effects of exposure to family planning programming in audio, visual, and audio-visual mass media on shaping individual contraceptive attitudes and behaviors. We further investigated whether the effects vary by gender. The results of a pooled analysis that included both men and women indicated that the exposure to audio media was important in shaping contraceptive attitudes and that the exposure to audio-visual media was important in shaping contraceptive practice. However, the results of a gender disaggregated analysis revealed that the effectiveness of media exposure differed between men and women. While the exposure to audio media (radio) was important among men in shaping their contraceptive attitudes, the exposure to audio-visual media (television, movies) was important among women. But the exposure to audio-visual media was important among men in shaping their contraceptive behaviors, whereas none of the media were found to be important for influencing contraceptive practice among women. The results suggest that a blanket approach of information, education, and communication (IEC) campaigns that disregards gender may not be effective in increasing contraceptive use among individuals in farming communities in developing countries.

University of Texas Population Research Center: "The Geography of Poverty and Segregation in Metropolitan Lima, Peru," by Paul A. Peters and Emily H. Skop (WP 04-05-13, 2005, .pdf format, 40p.).


Latin American mega-cities have developed within a specific set of cultural, social, geographic, and economic conditions (Gilbert, 1996). The combination of formal and informal urban development patterns, weak land-use planning, inequitable economic opportunities, and unequal social divisions have created divergent, and highly localized patterns of spatial segregation in varying Latin American urban contexts (Sabatini, 2003a). Indeed, social and economic inequality and highly segregated development patterns have contributed to a socially and culturally fragmented urban environment. As a result of these and other factors, multiple urban structures and development patterns have emerged in Latin American mega-cities. Despite these important factors, little empirical evidence has been produced to capture the extent and magnitude of socio-spatial segregation in Latin American mega-cities. This paper contributes the theoretical discussions on spatial segregation in general, and Latin America in particular, through a detailed analysis of the multiple dimensions and scales of poverty and segregation Metropolitan Lima, Peru.

University of Washington Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology:

A. "An Assessment Of China's Fertility Level Using The Variable-r Method," by Yong Cai (WP No. 05-06, June 2005, .pdf format, 23p.).


The current fertility level in China is a matter of uncertainty and controversy. This paper applies Preston and Coale's (1982) variable-r method to assess the fertility level in China. Using data from China's 1990 and 2000 censuses, and annual population sample surveys, the variable-r method confirms that Chinese fertility has indeed reached a level well below replacement.

B. "How Much Gold Will You Put On Your Daughter? A Behavioral Ecology Perspective on Dowry Marriage," by Mary K. Shenk (WP No. 05-07, June 2005, .pdf format, 41p.).


This paper presents and evaluates a model of South Asian marriage costs based on the logic of Embodied Capital theory1. The model links both cross-sectional and temporal trends in marriage expenditures to an increase in per-child investment related to increasing participation in a wage-labor economy. The model predicts that expected relationships will differ based on the functions of different aspects of marriage costs as either property transfers or displays of wealth, and on the gender of the child that marriage costs are paid for. Trends in three types of marriage costs are examined, including costs of gold, costs of wedding functions, and total marriage costs. Five specific predictions are tested using retrospective data collected2 as part of my dissertation research in the city of Bangalore, India, which includes over 1,100 marriages that span the time period from 1940-2002.

I find that dowry marriages are more common among wealthier and better educated families and more recently in time, while bride-price marriages are restricted to poorer and less educated families earlier in time. Furthermore, I find that educational characteristics are better predictors of transfer elements of marriage costs while wealth characteristics are better predictors of display elements of marriage costs across several types of analyses. Additionally, I find that only transfer elements of marriage costs show evidence of inflation over time while display elements show no change or even mild deflation. Finally, I briefly compare my predictions and findings to those of other authors relating to the topic of dowry inflation.

National Bureau of Economic Research:

A. "Ethnic Identification, Intermarriage, and Unmeasured Progress by Mexican Americans," by Brian Duncan and Stephen J. Trejo (w11423, June 2005, .pdf format, 35p.).


Using Census and CPS data, we show that U.S.-born Mexican Americans who marry non-Mexicans are substantially more educated and English proficient, on average, than are Mexican Americans who marry co-ethnics (whether they be Mexican Americans or Mexican immigrants). In addition, the non-Mexican spouses of intermarried Mexican Americans possess relatively high levels of schooling and English proficiency, compared to the spouses of endogamously married Mexican Americans. The human capital selectivity of Mexican intermarriage generates corresponding differences in the employment and earnings of Mexican Americans and their spouses. Moreover, the children of intermarried Mexican Americans are much less likely to be identified as Mexican than are the children of endogamous Mexican marriages. These forces combine to produce strong negative correlations between the education, English proficiency, employment, and earnings of Mexican-American parents and the chances that their children retain a Mexican ethnicity. Such findings raise the possibility that selective ethnic 'attrition' might bias observed measures of intergenerational progress for Mexican Americans.

B. "Death and the City: Chicago's Mortality Transition, 1850-1925," by Joseph P. Ferrie and Werner Troesken (w11427, June 2005, .pdf format, 62p.).


Between 1850 and 1925, the crude death rate in Chicago fell by 60 percent, driven by reductions in infectious disease rates and infant and child mortality. What lessons might be drawn from the mortality transition in Chicago, and American cities more generally? What were the policies that had the greatest effect on infectious diseases and childhood mortality? Were there local policies that slowed the mortality transition? If the transition to low mortality in American cities was driven by forces largely outside the control of local governments (higher per capita incomes or increases in the amount and quality of calories available to urban dwellers from rising agricultural productivity), then expensive public health projects, such as the construction of public water and sewer systems, probably should have taken a back seat to broader national policies to promote overall economic growth. The introduction of pure water explains between 30 and 50 percent of Chicago's mortality decline, and that other interventions, such as the introduction of the diphtheria antitoxin and milk inspection had much smaller effects. These findings have important implications for current policy debates and economic development strategies.

C. "Impacts of Policy Reforms on Labor Migration From Rural Mexico to the United States," by Susan M. Richter, J. Edward Taylor and Antonio Naude (w11428, June 2005, .pdf format, 21p.).


Using new survey data from Mexico, a dynamic econometric model is estimated to test the effect of policy changes on the flow of migrant labor from rural Mexico to the United States and test for differential effects of policy changes on male and female migration. We find that both IRCA and NAFTA reduced the share of rural Mexicans working in the United States. Increased U.S. border enforcement had the opposite effect. The impacts of these policy variables are small compared with those of macroeconomic variables. The influence of policy and macroeconomic variables is small compared with that of migration networks, as reflected in past migration by villagers to the United States. The effects of all of these variables on migration propensities differ, quantitatively and in some cases qualitatively, by gender.

D. "Regional Economic Development and Mexican Out-Migration," by Kurt Unger (w11432, June 2005, .pdf format, 31p.).


This paper shows evidence of positive effects in the economic development of sending communities in Mexico due to migration. The principal hypothesis of this study is that remittances, knowledge and experience acquired by migrants during their migratory cycle, can be translated into larger economic growth in the out migration municipalities. This result presupposes that Government could create complementary incentives to take advantage of profitable activities. Economic and migration data for each municipality is used which allows to associate characteristics of communities, migratory flows and the effects in profitable activities. There are three sections. A first section describes the sending municipalities according to migratory intensity and their urban /rural nature. The second section analyzes the relation between remittances and socioeconomic conditions of the communities. In a third section the effect over time is estimated, relating per capita income growth and migratory flows intensity. The most relevant results are the existence of income convergence over time between high and low migration municipalities in the North and South of Mexico. As well, we find a positive and significant relation between per capita income growth and the percentage of households that receive remittances across communities, both at the country level and for the northern and southern regions separately.

E. "Prenatal Drug Use and the Production of Infant Health," by Kelly Noonan, Nancy E. Reichaman, Hope Corman, and Dhaval Dave (w11433, June 2005, .pdf format, 39p.).


We estimate the effect of illicit drug use during pregnancy on low birth weight. We use data from a national longitudinal study of urban parents that includes post-partum interviews with mothers, hospital medical record data on the mother and newborn, extensive demographic information on both parents, and information about the city where the mother resides. We address the potential endogeneity of prenatal drug use and present estimates using alternative measures of prenatal illicit drug use. Depending on how drug use is measured, we find deleterious effects of illicit drug use on low birth weight that range from 3 to 5 percentage points.

F. "Race, Income, and College in 25 Years: The Continuing Legacy of Segregation and Discrimination," by Alan Krueger, Jesse Rothstein, and Sarah Turner (w11445, June 2005, .pdf format, 46p.).


The rate at which racial gaps in pre-collegiate academic achievement can plausibly be expected to erode is a matter of great interest and much uncertainty. In her opinion in Grutter v. Bollinger, Supreme Court Justice O'Connor took a firm stand: "We expect that 25 years from now, the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary . . ." We evaluate the plausibility of Justice O'Connor's forecast, by projecting the racial composition and SAT distribution of the elite college applicant pool 25 years from now. We focus on two important margins: First, changes in the black-white relative distribution of income, and second, narrowing of the test score gap between black and white students within family income groups. Other things equal, progress on each margin can be expected to reduce the racial gap in qualifications among students pursuing admission to the most selective colleges. Under plausible assumptions, however, projected economic progress will not yield nearly as much racial diversity as is currently obtained with race-sensitive admissions. Simulations that assume additional increases in black students' test scores, beyond those deriving from changes in family income, yield more optimistic estimates. In this scenario, race-blind rules approach the black representation among admitted students seen today at moderately selective institutions, but continue to fall short at the most selective schools. Maintaining a critical mass of African American students at the most selective institutions would require policies at the elementary and secondary levels or changes in parenting practices that deliver unprecedented success in narrowing the test score gap in the next quarter century.


World Bank Development Programme: "Preventing and responding to gender-based violence in middle and low-income countries : a global review and analysis," by Sarah Bott and Andrew Morrison (WP 3618, June 2005, .pdf format, 61p.).


Worldwide, patterns of violence against women differ markedly from violence against men. For example, women are more likely than men to be sexually assaulted or killed by someone they know. The United Nations has defined violence against women as "gender-based" violence, to acknowledge that such violence is rooted in gender inequality and is often tolerated and condoned by laws, institutions, and community norms. Violence against women is not only a profound violation of human rights, but also a costly impediment to a country's national development. While gender-based violence occurs in many forms throughout the life cycle, this review focuses on two of the most common types-physical intimate partner violence and sexual violence by any perpetrator. Unfortunately, the knowledge base about effective initiatives to prevent and respond to gender-based violence is relatively limited. Few approaches have been rigorously evaluated, even in high-income countries. And such evaluations involve numerous methodological challenges. Nonetheless, the authors review what is known about more and less effective-or at least promising-approaches to prevent and respond to gender-based violence. They present definitions, recent statistics, health consequences, costs, and risk factors of gender-based violence. The authors analyze good practice initiatives in the justice, health, and education sectors, as well as multisectoral approaches. For each of these sectors, they examine initiatives that have addressed laws and policies, institutional reforms, community mobilization, and individual behavior change strategies. Finally, the authors identify priorities for future research and action, including funding research on the health and socioeconomic costs of violence against women, encouraging science-based program evaluations, disseminating evaluation results across countries, promoting investment in effective prevention and treatment initiatives, and encouraging public-private partnerships.

International Monetary Fund: "Aid and Growth: What Does the Cross-Country Evidence Really Show?" by Raghuram Rajan and Arvind Subramanian (Working Paper 05/127, June 2005, .pdf format, 48p.).


We examine the effects of aid on growth-- in cross-sectional and panel data--after correcting for the bias that aid typically goes to poorer countries, or to countries after poor performance. Even after this correction, we find little robust evidence of a positive (or negative) relationship between aid inflows into a country and its economic growth. We also find no evidence that aid works better in better policy or geographical environments, or that certain forms of aid work better than others. Our findings, which relate to the past, do not imply that aid cannot be beneficial in the future. But they do suggest that for aid to be effective in the future, the aid apparatus will have to be rethought. Our findings raise the question: what aspects of aid offset what ought to be the indisputable growth enhancing effects of resource transfers? Thus, our findings support efforts under way at national and international levels to understand and improve aid effectiveness

Institute for the Study of Labor [University of Bonn, Germany]:

A. "U.S. Border Enforcement and the Net Flow of Mexican Illegal Migration," by Manuela Angelucci (Discussion Paper 1642, June 2005, ASCII text and .pdf format, 39p.).


This paper investigates the effect of U.S. border enforcement on the net flow of Mexican undocumented migration. It shows how this effect is theoretically ambiguous, given that increases in border controls deter prospective migrants from crossing the border illegally, but lengthen the duration of current illegal migrations. It then estimates the impact of enforcement on 1972-1993 migration net flows by merging aggregate enforcement data with micro data on potential and current illegal Mexican migrants. The econometric model accounts for the endogeneity of border controls using the Drug Enforcement Administration budget as an instrumental variable. Both the inflow and outflow of illegal Mexican migration are highly sensitive to changes in border enforcement. The estimates of the enforcement overall effect on illegal migration's net flow range across different specifications, from a decline--about 35% of the size of the effect on the inflow--to an increase. Thus, they suggest that border enforcement may not be an effective means to reduce the level of the illegal alien population in the United States.

B. "Education, Matching and the Allocative Value of Romance," by Alison L. Booth and Melvyn Coles (Discussion Paper 1649, July 2005, .pdf format, 41p.).


Societies are characterized by customs governing the allocation of non-market goods such as marital partnerships. We explore how such customs affect the educational investment decisions of young singles and the subsequent joint labor supply decisions of partnered couples. We consider two separate matching paradigms for agents with heterogeneous abilities - one where partners marry for money and the other where partners marry for romantic reasons orthogonal to productivity or debt. These generate different investment incentives and therefore have a real impact on the market economy. While marrying for money generates greater investment efficiency, romantic matching generates greater allocative efficiency, since more high ability individuals participate in the labour market. The analysis offers the possibility of explaining cross-country differences in educational investments and labor force participation based on matching regimes.

Institute for Social and Economic Research [University of Essex]: "Design Effects for Multiple Design Samples," by Siegfried Gabler, Sabine Häder, Peter Lynn (WP 2005-12, June 2005, .pdf format, 15p.).


In some situations the sample design of a survey is rather complex, consisting of fundamentally different designs in different domains. The design effect for estimates based upon the total sample is a weighted sum of the domain-specific design effects. We derive these weights under an appropriate model and illustrate their use with data from the European Social Survey (ESS).

Economic Education and Research Consortium [Russia]: "Fertility determinants in modern Russia," by Authors Boykov Andrey, Roshchina Yana (05-04E, June 2005, .pdf format, 63p.)


Economic models of fertile behavior are the theoretical background of this research. For empirical models estimates we use RLMS data (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey) for 1994-2001. These models are estimated for following dependent variables: probability of childbearing, probability of pregnancy break (within the next year after polling), the desire to have a child in future. Many economic variables influence family decision-making on a childbearing, however nevertheless major factors which determine reproductive behavior, remain demographic (age and quantity of children ever born) and cultural. Values and cultural factors remain more influencing propensity to parenthood, than economic. The importance of nationality, religiousness, satisfaction by financial position, and also frequencies of alcohol consuming is high. Distinctions between regions are essential, between cities and countryside too. Birth rate is higher in poorer regions, with lower level of female unemployment. Many economic factors which theoretically should influence decision-making on a birth of a child (employment, profession, education, incomes of women and their spouses, conditions of life), appeared insignificant or significant only in models for some samples of women.

Scandinavian Working Papers in Economics [Stockholm, Sweden]: "Inequality in the Access to Secondary Education and Rural Poverty in Bangladesh: An Analysis of Household and School Level Data," by Alia Ahmad, Mahabub Hossain and Manik Lal Bose (No. 2005:36, June 2005, .pdf format, 56p.).


This paper explores the relationship between different levels of education and poverty through an analysis of household-level data from 60 villages in Bangladesh. First of all, it depicts the overall trend in school enrollment at primary and secondary level between 1988-2000, and confirms the inequality that exists in the access to education at post-primary level. This is followed by a presentation of income and occupation data that show a strong positive correlation with the level of education. In the second part, an income function analysis has been done to assess the impact of education along with other determinants. Marginal returns to upper secondary and primary level of education have been found to be higher than lower secondary education. The third part analyzes the effects of education on child/woman ratio, and on the secondary school participation rate of male and female children. Both poverty and low education have positive but weak effect on child/woman ratio. On the other hand, school participation rates are strongly affected by the income status of the household and education of father and mother. Mother´s education has stronger effect on girls´ enrollment in secondary schools. Lastly, the analysis of school-level data confirms the findings from household survey such as the absence of gender gap at primary level and higher proportion of girls in some secondary schools. The unexpectedly high promotion rates in secondary schools suggest that the schools are more concerned about government financial support than the quality of education. High degree of private tuition among secondary school teachers also points toward inequality in the access to quality education that impairs the ability of the poor to complete the secondary level.

New Zealand Treasury:

A. "Women's Participation in the Labour Force," by Grant Johnston (WP 05/06, June 2005, .pdf format, 39p.).


Labour force participation is a topical issue in New Zealand. It is well known that the participation of New Zealand women aged 25-39 is low in comparison with women in other OECD countries. There has been considerable interest in policies which might raise women's participation. This paper provides a base of information on women's labour force participation in New Zealand and in other OECD countries. The low participation of younger New Zealand women seems to be driven largely by a combination of relatively low participation rates among mothers with young children and sole mothers, together with high fertility rates and high proportions of sole parent families. However, while New Zealand women tend to leave the labour force when they have children, they also tend to return strongly to the labour force when their children get older. Considered over all ages, New Zealand has a reasonably healthy female participation rate, and the total quantity of work done in New Zealand, relative to the size of the working-age population, is amongst the highest in the OECD.

Link to full text is at the bottom of the abstract.

B. "The Changing Gender Distribution of Paid and Unpaid Work in New Zealand," by Paul Callister (WP 05/07, June 2005, .pdf format, 33p.).


This paper explores five main questions regarding the gender distribution of work, primarily in the context of couples with young children. These are: how much total paid and unpaid work is carried out in New Zealand?; how is this work shared between women and men?; how does this compare with other countries?; how might the mix of unpaid and paid work change in New Zealand in the future?; and should gender equity in paid and unpaid work be a key part of the discussion about labour market participation rates? Overall, the data on paid and unpaid work show a pattern that is universal in industrialised countries. New Zealand men undertake more paid work, while women undertake more unpaid work. But there are differences between countries in the amount of paid and unpaid work undertaken by women and men. In particular, New Zealand stands out in terms of both the long hours worked by a group of men and, despite strong growth in maternal employment in recent decades, the low employment rates of a group of women with young children. Recent attention has focused on social policies which may potentially increase maternal participation rates or their hours of work. However, less attention has been given to how this might change the distribution of paid and unpaid work both within households, and the total amount of work undertaken by individuals and households. This paper considers such issues, and also canvasses some of the reasons why as a society we might want to increase women's participation or hours of paid work. It suggests that such discussions need to be carried out within the context of debates around a wider range of issues including the impact of "overwork" on a group of individuals, families and wider society; how to support replacement fertility levels; and how to increase business productivity. The paper argues that choices made by individuals, households, employers and the government will all play a part in determining the amount of paid and unpaid work undertaken in New Zealand; how such work is distributed between women and men; and the levels of income, parental care of children and leisure that individuals and households are able to achieve.

Link to full text is at the bottom of the abstract.

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JOURNAL TABLES OF CONTENTS (check your library for availability):

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Journal of Social Issues (Vol. 61, no. 2, 2005).

Social Forces (Vol. 83, no. 3, 2005).


Other Journals:

AIDS (Vol. 19, No. 11, Jul. 22, 2005).

American Journal of Epidemiology (Vol. 162, No. 2, Jul. 15, 2005).

Gender and Society (Vol. 19, No. 4, August, 2005).

Health Policy and Planning (Vol. 20, No. 4, July 2005).

Journal of Social Work (Vol. 5, No. 2, August 2005).

Public Health Nursing (Vol. 22, No. 3, May 2005). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the EBSCO Host Academic Elite database. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

Public Health Reports (Vol. 20, No. 4, July/August 2005). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

Work and Occupations (vol. 32, no. 3, August 1, 2005).

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Census Bureau:

A. "Subcounty Population Estimates--July 1, 2005" (Microsoft Excel and comma separated value [.csv] format). Note. The detailed tables are linked to from a Census Bureau news release "Port St. Lucie, Fla., is Fastest-Growing City, Census Bureau Says." (CB05-91, Jun. 30, 2005).

B. "America's Families and Living Arrangements: 2004" (comma separated value [.csv] format). "NOTE: Due to several anomalies in the coding of parent pointers and relationship to householder, there are several cells in the tables which show minor inconsistencies, or where the totals will not agree with each other. For example, in Table C5, a few children (several unweighted cases) appear under "Native child and parent" while simultaneously appearing under "Living with neither parent." In another instance, the total number of family groups with own children under 18 is given as 38,966 in Table FG3, but as 39,002 in Table FG7.

National Center for Health Statistics: "NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Linked Mortality File," (June 2005)."NCHS has conducted a mortality linkage of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) with the National Death Index (NDI). Linkage of the NHANES III survey participants with the NDI provides the opportunity to conduct a vast array of outcome studies designed to investigate the association of a wide variety of health factors with mortality. This is the first in a series of planned mortality linkages for the NHANES III survey."

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: "Add Health is now accepting requests for the first release of the Transcript Data from current Add Health contractors. There is no additional fee for these data if you currently have the Wave III restricted-use data, but a $250 fee is charged users who have not ordered Wave III."

General Social Survey [Roper Center]: "The pre-release version of the 1972-2004 cumulative data file for the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Survey (GSS) is now available for download by Roper Center member institutions."

Panel Study of Income Dynamics Update:

A. "Family History Files: 2003 Data". For more information see:

Data access:

B. "2003 Short-Term Co-Resident," (June 30, 2005). For more information see:

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Charlie Fiss
Information Manager
Center for Demography and Ecology and
Center for Demography of Health and Aging
Rm. 4470A Social Science Bldg
1180 Observatory Drive
Madison, WI 53706-1393
Phone: (608) 265-9240
Fax: (608) 262-8400